Sitio de la Consejería de Educación de Cantabria(España)
El enlace contiene un texto de Ana Arendt que es utilizado para la prueba de acceso a la Universidad en Cantabria para la asignatura de Historia de la Filosofía
Sitio de la Consejería de Educación de Cantabria(España)
introducing some basic keys for understanding Moral and Ethics as sources of values in Human Societies
Filosfico Dictionary of Voltaire, gives us a suggestive aproximacin the concept of morality.
“Morality does not consist in the supersticin or ceremonies, and there is nothing common with the dogmas.Never repeat enough that dogmas are different in each country, and that morality is the same for all men who use the gift of reason. Morality comes from God, as light, and superstitions are only darkness. ”
We do however, of interest, citing the comments made in a note Arancn Ana Martinez (Ed.Temas edition of Today), which states:
“As the moral, to Voltaire, est based on reason (and the reason is the only authentic revelation that God gives to men), is independent of religious and few. We have already sealed sometimes purely rationalist conception that does not hold in our days, for historical and social factors and development of our perceptive sensitivity valoracin change the facts. ”
Morality can be seen as an unwritten rule, which arises from the tradition and human customs. The concept has its root in the Greek ethos, which proposed Cicero translated as morality, brass mor (Moris), custom.
In terms Aristteles find the ethos related to virtue. And it meant the capacity of individuals aimed at achieving the goals necessary for life in common, in the polis. This means that to Aristteles and Greeks, virtue has to do with politics.
Drawing on the above, we suggest that there is a connection between morality, ethics and law politics. But this aseveracin must be substantiated.
We see continuacincmo defines the moral problem from a text anglosajn world (The Oxford Companion to Philosophy)
“Ms word trial is appropriate for itself that determines the deliberacin about morality? . Or are we looking for more, when we reflect on a situation that makes us moral perplexity, clarify and stabilize a feeling response
attraction or repulsion? ”
In this context, Hawthorn offers the case of a painter to choose the hue of the shadow of his painting, when there is no pre-existing reality that it constria gueo. However, it warns, we can argue against moral relativity based on the different feelings and emotions about it, that even these feelings estn properly subject to moral judgments, as est love, as this one can acquire corrupt forms.
In the above two tables are synoptic Compendium, which allow us to get an idea about how the topics about about the moral and policy are raised in the world anglosajn of our times.
In the first table are as title: The Moral Philosophy (or policy).Establishing a division in moral philosophy applied theorists and moral philosophy.
In terms of moral philosophy Theoretically, it is subdivided into two: the moral theorists and moral theorists metate as standard policy.
The metate in turn implies the following subdivisions:
1-the nature of morality: it refers to questions about the objectivity of morality (moral realism, subjectivism, relativism) and the nature of responsibility and its connection with free will
2-la moral psychology: it examines the moral motivation (which was connected with the matter of moral responsibility and free will through the “Philosophy of mind.”Another aspect involved in this section of moral psychology to understand the theory of decisions involving the logic and game theory. Lastly, the descriptive matter of the policy.
3-the epistemological moral is to study two key issues, namely: the nature of moral knowledge and the nature of moral arguments. The first is the issue of justification of moral views and the second logic Dentice.
The standard policy is to address two issues:
1-the ethics, issues of duty.
2-the axiological, which studies the problems of value
The applied moral philosophy includes the following aspects of study:
business policy, legal policy, ethics doctor, biotic, environmental policy.
At the same time for us to be connected to the Philosophy of Right, Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of economics.
In a second table presents the Compendium of the following classifications on the policies theories:
C-No – cognitivism
Relativism appears in this picture without any specification.
Noncognitivism involves two divisions: prescriptivism Hare and our emotions, and Stevenson Yesterday
The most extensive branching corresponds to absolutism, which begins by classifying three “branches” fundamental
2-theories of virtue
Deontolgicas prospects include:
a) prospects divine commands
b) Rationalism: Kant and the contract (Plato, Rawls)
c) intuitionism: From Principles (Price, Cudworth) and the particular facts
Teleolgicas prospects include:
b) theories of justice
a)-Consequentialism implies: the selfishness, universalism and altruism.
Universalism is put in connection with utilitarianism, which can be classified as:
1-positive utilitarianism: the act (ideal, Moore)
(Hedonistic, Sidgwick) rule (ideal), (hedonistic).
2-negative utilitarianism: the act (ideal), (hedonistic) rule (ideal), (hedonistic)
3-utilitarianism of preference: the act, rule
b)-The theories of justice, which bear some relationship to consequentialism, involve two issues: distributive justice and corrective justice.
Distributive justice involves the following three issues:
1-the distribution of satisfaction, 2-the distribution of goods; 3-the distribution of opportunities
There follows we will present another way of understanding the matter of the policy and morality, we find in the dictionary Filosfico the young Spanish philosopher Garcia Pelayo , which shows how understand and raise this themed by the philosopher Gustavo Bueno, a representative of the moral philosophy of the current American world.
Gustavo Bueno argues that it is necessary to establish certain differences of departure, namely between
1-knowledge “worldly” morality.
2 – knowledge of the moral scientist.
3-filosfico knowledge of morality.
The topics about scientist knowledge of morality is that there are two basic types of questions, namely:
A) Issues relating to the order of operations on the realities of moral, ethical or jurdicas (ordo essendi) and B) issues relating to operations is the order of knowledge of those realities (moral, policies or jurdicas) (ordo cognoscendi).
As for the order essendi is important to distinguish between operations with the determination of the existence of morality and questions about the operations that determine the essential structure of morality
The questions of existence referirn the origin of moral norms in certain societies.
But those questions about the origin can only be adequately studied travs of hypotheses to explain the structural issues. Example of this last will be topics about the following questions:
There are universal moral abstract or timeless, as are universal linguistics, which irn determining the course of
There is a universal code or at least, universal components, although abstract, common to all codes?
As for the order cognoscendi the fundamental distinction is established between the level or descriptive fenomenolgico teortico or ontolgico level.
A central thesis of the moral philosopher Gustavo Bueno revolves around the topics about: “Knowledge fenomenolgico the morality of a society or an individual can be conducted from an emic perspective or from a perspective etic. ” The distinction between the emic and etic, which has taken Well – modificndola in part – of linguists and American anthropologist Kenneth Pike is crucial in this approach as it provides an epistemological differentiation of great importance in the study of morality.It seeks to establish the distinction between the subject’s perspective that belongs to a community and is directly affected by their moral standards, their customs, and the subject – in this case, the moral philosopher – which seeks to establish some objectivity about the moral conduct of the study object, in this case provided by science, anthropology, sociology, psychology, ethnologist, &.
On knowledge ontolgico, according to the moral theory of Good, will arise, for example, when it comes to determining the causes of moral standards. In the case of psychoanalysis, when looking for the causality of the norm in the so-called superego. The case of the sociologist who claims that the origin of moral norms is a matter of social functionalism.
Well proposes a classification of questions of moral philosophy into four types:
1 – fenomenolgico-hermenuticas issues of morality: “it is moral to consider the same phenomena described by the moral sciences (ethnological-Linguistics) interpreting the phenomena described in the light of moral ideas can be assumed to act implied, even in the same
Proposed as examples Espinosa Ethics and Philosophy of Spirit
2 – fundamentacin issues of morality: they correspond to causal analysis (sociolgicos, functional) of the moral sciences, or etiolgica moral ideology of the mundane (eg, “the moral laws binding because they are commandments revealed by God to Moses.”)Social or historical sciences are not intended to judge morally justify or condemn, to assess or estimate, but only to explain. “But the fundamentacin filosfica will have to judge from the transcendental foundations of morality (involving moral philosopher himself) and not merely from foundations or psicolgicos sociolgicos, will have to establish whether these foundations can take sides, which involve a historical treatment of morality. Example:
Criticism of the practices of Kant Reason. ”
3 – fenomenolgico-criticisms issues of morality: present a comparative analysis of various codes, and most especially, the moral casustica because they take their content analysis of worldly standards , collected by scientists or taken directly from
social reality and politics. “Each case of moral duty to be inserted in a precise scenario fenomenolgico “. The example of the dialogues of Plato’s moral content.
4 – axiomatic moral issues: “Are relative to moral code, the analysis of the principles implied, the systematics of the moral virtues, in coordination with other legislation, to order any of the various rules, &.Example: Ethics Nicmaco
of Aristteles. ”
Annex: terminology management.
I – Throughout the course, students irn putting together what we define as “dictionary of terms” developed from two sources:
1 – dictionaries, encyclopedias, &
2 – the actual study of the topics covered in the contents of each of the three parties making up the proposal for the course of Moral Philosophy.This source draws on the studies conducted llevarna along the course. The way in which the practice takes is an attempt to make the students themselves will desarrollndola ability to provide innovative approaches to the business. We propose the elaboration of comments, notes in the form of worksheets, &.It should clearly differentiate the two sources full terminolgicas
II – Some key terms to consider:
Essence of moral
The normative and fctico
Structure of the moral act
Morality and religion
Morals and politics
Morals and law
Moral and social treatment
Moral and science
Determinism and freedom
Ignorance and moral responsibility
Coaccin foreign and moral responsibility
Absolute determinism and freedom
Libertarianism and moral
Dialectic of freedom and the need
The economic value
Objectivism and subjectivism axiolgicos
The moral valoracin
Good and value
The good and happiness (eudaemonism)
The good and pleasure (Hedonism)
Good and “good will” (Kant’s formalism)
Good and useful (utilitarianism)
Social character of moral obligation
Deontolgicas theories act
Deontolgicas theories of the moral norm (the Kantian theory of moral obligation)
Teleolgicas theories of moral obligation (selfishness and utilitarianism)
Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism
The realization of the moral
S basic moral principles
The individual’s moralizacin
The moral virtues
The realization of morality as a collective
Life and economic and the realization of moral
The spiritual life of the community and the realization of moral
Form and justification of moral judgments
The form logic of moral judgments
Declarative forms, preferred or mandatory
Meaning of moral judgments
The theory emotivist
The rational justification of moral judgments
Criteria of moral justification
The relativism superacin tico
 Cf Eduardo Nicol, The Idea of Man, Mexico, FCE, p. 354-355
 consider important to point that in this respect there are two books of great interest for the study of the moral model. It Elorduy book on stoicism and two other key books, Gonzalo Puente Ojea: 1 – Ideologae History (The Stoic phenomenon in ancient society)
2 – Ideologae History) The formation of Christianity as an ideological phenomenon.)
 Cf His work The philosophy in the Middle Ages Ed Gredos. Pg 17.Besides warns us that “Christianity is a religion, to use, sometimes, certain terms filosficos to express their faith, the sacred writers yield to a human, but replacing filosfico an ancient sense of these terms for a new religious meaning. It is this sense that they should attribute when they find in Christian books. We will have frequent occasion to verify this rule throughout the history of Christian thought, and it is always dangerous to forget. ”
 Cf Ojea Bridge, Ideologae History (The formation of Christianity as the ideological phenomenon.)Pg 291
 We believe interesting to recall that the philosopher Heidegger Martn Aleman, in the twentieth century, was a great admirer of Hlderlin, precisely because of their interest as Germany’s national poet considered Heidegger ” the only people capable, by his spirit metaphysics, to save the West from its crisis, which reached the double bean grip of materialism of the communist USSR and capitalist America “as You can read his work An Introduction to metaphysics.It is interesting also recommend the reading of a book by Herbert Marcuse (who had written his doctoral dissertation on Hegel’s philosophy). Razny This is revolution, a book that explains the connection between the philosophy of Hegel and the European nationalism that connects to the Italian model of a totalitarian state in the era of Mussolini, for example, expressed edges cally by Croce.
 The connective of Espinosa et ordo, which means that the order and connection of things is the same order and connection of ideas. For a study of the philosophy of Materialism Filosfico Espinosa from consulting Pea Vidal’s book Spinoza’s materialism that is available on the Project page en Espaol Philosophy and is Free access
 is at this point or figure of Objective Spirit, where Hegel puts autodeterminacin Kantian moral, based on duty.
 It is important to consider the topics about to make a serious critique of Fukuyama’s thesis on the so-called end of history, in the present context of the so-called new world order.
 Cf. Historicism and existentialism, p.264
 We note the names of John Dewey, Charles Peirce and William James himself, though we must bear in mind the English Whitehead, who worked in the United States, and others of importance as Santayana, Quine, Black or Nagel.See more details for the book by Paul Kurtz American Philosophy in the Twentieth Century.Mexico; Ed FCE, 1972. Since then we refer to authors in the first half of the twentieth century. Authors like Rawls, Dennet, &, are not directly part of the considerations we use in this context.
 Taken from the ed. Publisher Santillana, (1997) Philosophy Today collection. Lessons of Pragmatism, James W.
 Cf B. Russell Humane Society: policy and politics, Madrid; Ed.Ctedra.Pg.133
 In this part we will use as a reference critic, thought tico exposed by Albert Schweitzer in the book Civilizaciny policy. We believe that this author is a master of filosfica criticism, and the goal of our educational project is precisely the attitude criticism build on students. This method proves most difficult quiz that shows based on descriptive, but is much more filosfico.
 Schweitzer in his book defends the thesis that filosfico-cal systems of the West develop an optimistic conception of the policy and life, which means that does not solve the central problems policy, because the basis of this optimism, it hides the true path for the policy that Schweitzer has proposed: a policy of reverence for life.This means that the policy should address not only by men, but life in general and the natural environment in which sta develops. An optimistic conception of the world does not solve the problem tico. The thesis of Schweitzer debern be discussed, and besides, it is necessary to detect whether their interpretations of the theories of various philosophers practices and schools, are criticisms Validate.
 Schweitzer puts this in the following words: “Instead of creating a policy, Aristteles content with a doctrine of virtue.”
 Cfr.G. Ojea Bridge; Ideologae history.The Stoic phenomenon in ancient society. P. 29
 Cf Eleuterio Elorduy, Stoicism, Vol II p.96
 In this case we follow the argumentacin of Elorduy, while avoiding its neat explanation , Trying to expose the essential.
 Elorduy, op.cit., p. 99
 Seneca, Ep. 118.9. Apud Elorduy
 Cf Gustavo Bueno, First Essay on the categories of “political science”, p. 113-114 Book available with free access http://fgueno.es
 We read of interest chapter for this historic period in the book of Salvador Giner history of social thought, Ed Ariel
 Cf Gustavo Bueno, op.cit., P. 227
 See History of Social Thought, p. 202.This is important for the matter of the founding International delDerecho, attributed to Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546).
 It is interesting to Albiac Gabriel’s book, The Synagogue cow. Madrid, Ed hyper, 1987.
 See The Meaning of Life, p. 611
 Cf A. Schweitzer, op.cit. P. 146 ff.
 Cf S. Giner, op. p.306
 Cf Mac Intyre, op.cit, p.182
 Cf Galvez JI; The thought of Karl Marx, Madrid, Ed Taurus
 Cf Mac Intyre, After Virtue, Barcelona, Criticism, 2001, p. 146 ff.
 Published in 1950 for the first time. The edition we use is the Princeton University Press, 1968, which is the third edition in English.
 Kauufmann, op. cit. p.321
 Heidegger, Nietzsche I, Barcelona, Destino, 2000, p. 64 ss.
 Heidegger, op.cit, p.153
 Cf Gustavo Bueno, op.cit. P. 169-170
 Franz Brentano, The origin of moral knowledge, Madrid; Ed.Revista of the West, 2ed. 1941
 Brentano, op. p. 30
 The book, published by the Foundation and Ed Pentalfa Gustavo Bueno, it is of interest in the amount of analysis of concepts on the Philosophy of law and policy and moral problemtica. Vid. P. 109
 Cf H.Kelsen Teora General; Mexico;: Ed,, 1979, 15 ed. p.57-58
 Cf FA Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, Madrid; Ed editorial Union, 1991. p. 260
 action, especially social action, says Weber, in addition to the social relationship, “can be targeted by side his department participated in the representation of the existence of an order legtimo.The probability of this happening is in fact called “validity” of the order in topics about. ” But in addition, the legitimacy of a particular order “may be warranted:
A purely intimate, and in this case:
I. 1) purely emotional, sentimental Delivery;
2) according to rational values: the belief in its absolute validity, as expression of supreme values generating duties (moral, aesthetic or any other kind);
3) religious: the belief that its observance depends on the existence of a well of salvation.
II.Also (or only) by the expectation of certain external consequences, ie, a situation of interest, but by expectations of a particular genre “In Economay society, Mexico, FCE, p. 27
 Weber, Ibid. , P. 29
 In the book edited by Victoria Camps, History of the policy, Vol 3. p. 148.
 Cf Herbert Marcuse, One Dimensional Man, Mexico, Ed Joaquin Mortiz, 5ed.1969.p.12 ss.
 Cf B.arrington Moore, Injustice: social bases of obedience and rebellion, Mexico, UNAM, Institute of Social Research, 1989 is essential to understanding the scope of the proposals metodolgicas of the Frankfurt School and a possible bailout for the analysis of the social critic, from a critical and non dogmtica philosophy or idealistic in the low current.
 Cf Federico Urals, The evolution of philosophy in Spain, Barcelona, Laia, 1977. pp. 160-170
 Quoted by Gustavo Bueno on The meaning of life.P. 399.
The Book of Good Questions cuodlibetales about God and religion, Madrid, Mondadori, 1989, devotes a full chapter to discuss this idea of Zubiri.Both books can be read at no cost ntegrating the Foundation web page Gustavo Bueno
 Posted by editorial Pentalfa, Oviedo.
 Cf After, policy and human condition, Barcelona; Ed.Pennsula, 2000. p. 16
 Cf logic of the limit, p. 108
 logic of the limit, p. 317
 Ed.Ayuso, books hyperinflation.
 Posted by ICE cleaned and the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Jnger Heidegger devotes her writing, “on her sixtieth birthday.”
 Cf The “Christian Gauss Lectures, 1971, appearing in the Theory of communicative action: add and previous studies.
 Cf. T Com Acc. : Ins and previous studies, p. 26
 In the book cited in footnote 21, p. 377ss.
 Cf Gadamer, Truth ymtodo, Salamanca, Ed Sgueme; 1991.p. 600 ff.
 Ibid. p.646
 Cf Apel, Theory of truth and policy discourse, Barcelona; priate / ICE, 1991.
 The edition of Principia Ethica that we handle is the UNAM, Mexico, with a translation of Adolfo Garcia Diaz, 1959. The Trial edition ticos (original title The early essays) is Agostini Metro, with an introductory study of Javier SDAB, 1992.
 Cfr.Kant; Criticism of the reason practice; Preface critic for an essay on Kant’s fundamental thesis done since coordinates filosfico materialist view that the essential test Gustavo Bueno on page http: / / http://www.filosofia.org/rev/bas/bas23501.htm
 Cf Moore, Essays ticos, p. 62 ss.
 Cf The interesting book of John Passmore, A Hundred Years of Philosophy, London, Pelican, 1972.There are Spanish Translation.
 Cf Moore, Principa Ethica, p. 105, ed. UNAM, 1959. The comments and references made from this note, Sern always about texts in this book.
 has been published in Spanish for the controversial ed.Paids ICE / UAB, 1998 with the title Jrgen Habermas / John Rawls.POLITICAL Debate on liberalism
 Cfr.David Alvargonzlez, Science and Cultural Materialism, ed. UNED, 1989
 In his book Cibernetics.The Human Use of Human Beings, Wiener ciberntica define the use and control messages between man and machines, including machine and machines. But in addition to using Greek origin of the terms (kibernets), which means the pilot of a ship, one that leads to port the following travesas crew and sometimes difficult, in the midst of reefs, storms, etc.What to point at Vienna, from his concern for misuse to be pruned to give the nascent technology ciberntica was a misuse of technology could bring him to his autodestruccin, accelerating the process of entropy that nature meets as part of the laws of thermodynamics.
 Ivan Illich Cfr.los articles and Papart, and Froidevaux Chastonay in Le Monde and the article by Paul Huerga own, apart from the work produced by Steve Hasam, in which this questionnaire is developed n from an anti-neoliberal perspective advocated by the signatories of the Manifesto.
 Cfr.a this regard the book of Gustavo Bueno The meaning of life . In l are studied concepts in a context filosfico person, such as freedom, human rights and the same notion of the meaning of life.
 For those interested in learning estn s basic lines of the Theory of Science, we recommend consulting the Internet page with this URL
in which you can read a summary of this theory in the book (can be downloaded from the network), What is Science?, ed. Pentalfa; Oviedo
 The sindresis in Santo Toms de Aquino, is the habit of first principles practices (cf. De veritate, Q.17, a.2, ad.3).The sindresis not a potential, but is an act, a habit that occurs in the practice, not a general topics about or theorists, is a rule of action that is done, not merely a moral rule or policy.
 Nolle-Neumann, The Spiral of Silence.Opininpblica-our social skin, Barcelona; Paids, 1995
 F. Valbuena, Teora General Information, Madrid, Noesis, 1997 Sourcebook free online at Project Filosofia en Espaol
 N. Chomsky and E. Herman, The guardians of freedom.Propaganada, desinformaciny consensus on the means of mass communication, Barcelona, Criticism, 1990
 In Philosophy, politics, law, University of Valencia, 2001
 Hans KHN; A global policy for economay the politics, Mexico, FCE, 2000
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I) COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM AS VITAL BIOTICA
At the time (half a century) since Norbert Wiener showed his concern about the social impact of what he meant by Ciberntica  , and another time from the celebrated Article Alan Turing on the question concerning the possibility of thinking machines have been a series, an ongoing, of rapid changes. These changes show that, perhaps, the Age of Electronics and Mc Luhan est in our daily lives, so that it will be said that we live in a kind of dream (perhaps nightmare) in which fusemos all science fiction characters, the style of this almost mythical world happy Huxley, but also in the clebre Orwellian world of work (and also fifty year) 1984, in which the technology of communication was responsible, through the control of thought and everyday use of Newspeak, and Skinnerian behavior engineers at the power of Big Brother, that monster which Leviatn ciberntico, in the purest style Kafkaesque destroys citizens whose only goal appears to be the mere survival and individual hedonism, in memory of qu MINIMUM does the word solidarity.
In this brief paper aims, ms to provide solutions or ways of salvation “, invite a reflection back on more urgent aspects of what is known as Biotica, a nascent discipline, immersed fully in what we define as was Ciberntica, which, from the field of Philosophy of Science, we have challenges gnoseolgico character (on criteria of truth theories ) and Costa Rican character, politics, etctera, which urges us at least start with clarity of thought and precision of argument.
WHAT WE UNDERSTAND WHEN YOU SPEAK OF BIOTICA?
The terms are used to define activities that are intended to doctor the solution of diseases and pathologies, through the utilization of techniques that include what can be defined as gene engineering policy, the use of computers or even robots by MDIC international society, the utilization of products pharmacists “high technology”, whose high costs of production involving large companies, Some universities and even governments (who provide public for research funds, which are in turn exploited by transnational These companies, etc.).
It can also be related to the biotic consider the field of genetics engineering applied to human MAIN SUPPLY, its relationship to health, regardless of ecological considerations (environmental)
To speak of Biotica, must start from the fact that we live in what some call a global village, or a few “global”, which means that all the countries intimately related aspects estn pol ticos, economical, cultural and even educational, and all within a model which will include the fact that the fee to apply, in the ground state politicians and must be adapted to the rules of the game what we call neoliberalism .
Biotics, then, in a complex scenario, which assumes that there is still obviously rich countries and poor, and within these concepts of rich / poor, variations that involve varying degrees or levels of poverty / wealth , has to be studied taking into account these structural differences. This means that Biotica should not speak of widespread, as if this discipline could be a pasu idntica another, as this will contribute, we believe, to conceal and misrepresent the facts, as often happens, from speeches politicians, from the information of the media, etc.
In the United States, for example, provides for Biotica from a different perspective that might arise in the European Union which is presented in the context of a country like Mexico, unlike the that may arise in Guatemala, El Salvador and Argentina.
THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
A) Socio politicians:
In April 1997 appeared in the Asturian town of Oviedo (Northern Spain) Asturias called Biotica Convention, which seek to establish guidelines that set the tone for the establishment of laws and activities PROTECTION aimed at the Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biomedicine Biologay
It intends to develop Policies and legislation on the following topics:
1) primaca human being, equitable access to health benefits, professional obligations and standards of conduct
2) free and informed consent of those affected by interventions medical, and refuge with these aspects of mental disorders and lastly, the issues of previous expressed by people doctor for the assistance
3) respect for private life and controlling information becomes available
4) sharee’ah human genome: predictive tests, interventions on the human genome. In this regard, we propose a choice not to sex, except in cases where this is necessary to avoid conditions that might be related to sex.
5) on the research scientist: the use of people to experience, which includes the use of embryos in vitro. On this issue of the embryos, the prohibition is explicit (Art.18.2) to form – (make)-human embryos for experriimentacin, but allows the possibility of experimenting on embryos in vitro, which seems somewhat paradoxical, certainly, or at least worthy of further debate and discussion.
6) extraction of organs and tissue for transplants from living donors.
7prohibicin profit and utilization of human body parts extrados
One of the proposals of the Convention of Asturias that seems important and should be taken up by the First Forum on Science, technology Society, is stressing the urgency and need to open a debate audience in society participation to travs educational mechanisms, the media, jurdicas institutions, politics, problems that include aspects sealed from ticos, physicians, even economically, the Bio policy, sta considered within the complexity that develops international.
B) Issues ticos:
In Italy there was a polmica during the summer of 1996, the signatories of the Manifesto of the Biotica Lay, appeared in the newspaper of the Italian economy Il Sole 24 Ore and leading scholars Bio policy located in what we call the Biotica of the Catholic Church.
The core of the controversial issues revolved around: 1-secularism, 2-the conception of science, the fecundacin artificial 3-and 4-ontolgico status of human embryo.
For two months (June and July 1996), the debate was increasing vehemence, and representatives of Catholic positions Pedano to “lay” to tolerate authority, ie, that suggested his opponents that the Church is the maximum authority in these matters, which was one of the things that did not accept the signatories of the manifesto layman.
The appearance of a document on Biotica made audience for the National Committee Biotica presented in Rome on July 12, 1996 (this document vein being developed since 1995 by a group of experts Bio policy) came to increase the tension lay / Catholics to introduce the topic of “Identity and status of human embryo.”
What we have then is a debate between those who advocate the need for the Biotica have religious content and those who say you can do Biotica secular. The article by the president of the association for the research lay in Biotica, Carlo Alberto Defanti is instructive, his title was “reasons beyond the hypotheses of God.”
Another issue raised in newspaper publications which published the Manifesto, was addressing the issue of the research scientist and moral legitimacy.Participated in the English l Roise Steven and Hillary Rose, director for the Brits Society for Social Responsibility in Science. Articles were published in which was claimed democrtico need for control over science in line with the proposals of Feyerabend. Lopert Wolpert, chairman of the Committee for comprensinpblica of science), University College London, argued that it is not science, but the use of results which requires moral reflection.
The debate bean out of the press and came to the university. In the Faculty of political science in Milan, where he discussed the contents of the Manifesto.Given the position taken by the National Committee Biotica (pro Christian) about what Evandro Agazzi bean defined as the “statute ontolgico the human embryo, the criticisms were not wait.
The National Committee considers Biotica, responding to the question is the human embryo a person?, Which for all intents and purposes, the embryo can be considered a person. This affirmation answers Armando Massarenti in Il Sole 24 Ore on 12 July that “it is not possible based on available biological knowledge, saying that the human embryo is a human individual or person.”The president of the Italian Society of philosophy analta defends secular policy advocated by the signatories of the Manifesto against the religious tenets that holds the National Committee Biotica.
To end the debate, the newspaper for publishing two articles written economy on both sides of the debate, the day July 21, 1996.What is seen as the end of “bitter” debate, is that both articles agree on the main points.
It is interesting lights to indicate that the debate resurfaced in 1998 with another topic biotic: the artificial fecundacin
* The content of Lay Biotica Manifesto:
This Manifesto proposes the following basic principles:
1-the progress of knowledge is understood as love of truth. They do not accept it, the laity, interference from outside science about what may or may not investigate sta.
2-man is not opposed to nature, as he himself is part of it.
3-the progress of science is humanity’s progress, helping to reduce human suffering.
From these three principles are established tenets practices consisting of:
1-Principle of Moral Autonomy, “all men are equally worthy and no authority over l can decide on their life and health. This implies the right to information.
2-you must ensure respect for religious beliefs of individuals. We accept this religious influence in the sense that it helps to develop a “fuzzy policy” for individuals, but it is unacceptable from the religious faith solve the fundamental problems posed by the biotic.
3-To ensure the “quality of life.”Individuals are entitled to live and die with the MINIMUM possible suffering.
4-to ensure to all individuals access to medicine with the highest possible level in relationship ms society in which they live.
* Criticisms that can be made to some of the above proposals:
If policy is to provide a truly secular, it must be also based on a secular policy, regardless of whether they accept or tolerate other religious cuo proposals.
The postulate that biotic intends to apply different criteria concerning the economic situation, or in terms of the Manifesto “in society relationship in which we live” is very questionable, at least not neoliberal positions , which are claimed concepts as social solidarity and political, or concepts like freedom, within the meaning of the philosopher Spinoza, who understood in relationship to the generosity and firmness. 
The position of the Church can synthesize travs of the following words of Pope John Paul II, “the biotic has the task of indicating to the world of medicine, politics, the economy aya society as a whole, the moral orientation to be printed in human activity and the project’s future. ” In addition, the Pope said that “emerges with a strong emphasis guides the existence of secure and trusted teachers. It seems therefore urgent to reflect on the biotic ontolgicas and anthropological roots of the rules that should guide decisions of such importance. The biotic is fertile ground for deep and sincere dialogue between the Church and science. It is in truth the man and his dignity ontolgica (…) where you can find appropriate answers to policy demands emerging from the genetics of the processes of procreation. “The position of the Pope, then, is intended to criticize moral relativism and utilitarianism that is in the Manifesto.
What is criticized in the Manifesto is precisely this intention on the Biotica theologizing that emerges from the Catholic proposals, in addition to rejecting the interventionism of the Church in these matters based on religious dogmas inconsistent with the policy scientist, one that already in the sixties and defenday proposes the celebrated Nobel Prize for Medicine polmico Jacques Monod in his book Chance and Necessity.Contrary to what he called “The Kingdom of Darkness” (the policy is referaa the kingdom of God, that is, the Church and religions in general) one had to develop a policy that takes into account results and theories of science, especially biology itself. While today may be unsustainable his thesis about what Monod called teleonomic, because you can not reduce biotic theorists reductionist approaches such as that considered living beings as mechanisms designed to function Teleon mica (although it is clear that each body part must perform properly the function for which it was developed, if you want to balance the system, ie the organism’s life)
About ontolgico topics about the status of the embryo, the Church, travs of one of its representatives, Monseor Sgreccia, defending a position which, incidentally, was held in the period Golden Escolstica Medieval (XIII century) by the philosopher Christian theologians and San Alberto Magno. According to San Alberto “the process of maturation of the human embryo is progressive, hence the origin of such development est and the whole being, even the same intelligence.”
Of course there is an important nuance in the current position of the Church, which proposes that “the thesis of the progressive humanizacin, according to which, the embryo will, s a human being from conception, but not llegaraa be a person to a later stage, it is not sustainable filosfica anthropologist. ”
There are two issues that limit this regard: first, that if we consider the positions defended by St. Albert the Great on the subject of Monseor embriny of Sgreccia, we think that the Church of our times is m s “closed”, more intolerant, more fundamentalist than the medieval. Indeed, it is noteworthy in this context that the position be maintained in the Middle Ages the celebrated Doctor Anglico (St. Thomas Aquinas) is incredibly similar to many bio ticos unbelievers in our times, namely: “the human embryo only becomes an individual of the human species through successive generations and corruptions, After several substantial changes, the ms INFUSIONS important consisting of the spiritual soul within a few weeks AFTER THE fecundacin. (This is called the “doctrine of delayed INFUSIONS soul).L aposicin current Church is much more radical than that advocated by two of its most respected medieval theorists, and currently holding that since the time when there is an egg is fertilized, and there is a being fully human person as an individual and respected …Can we ask, perhaps as a person in power?
On the other hand, we must, secondly, points out that the concept of person not only requires a “reconstruction criticism” from the philosophy, which naturally leads the Church or carry After all, as part of a dogmtica conception of the concept. Moreover, there will be criticized, from within the philosophy, the notion of “anthropologist filosfica” managed by Monseor Sgreccia, it is very likely that this concept from the coordinates of the Catholic Church coincides with its conception more anthropological than an actual teolgica filosfica anthropology. It is even necessary to subject the concept of anthropology filosfica to revision criticism, it is not easily determinable the Idea of Man, that s it approaches problemtica from gnoseolgicos. 
THE matter of THE PRINCIPLES AND RULES BIOTICA
The philosopher Gustavo Bueno proposed from the coordinates theorists call Scientific Theory of Categorial Closing, each s basic guidelines for the current discussion on theorists, practical problems facing the Biotica. [ 71]
In the Article entitled “Principles and general rules of a materialistic Biotica” (Well, “The Basilisk” 1999), warns that “the constitution Biotica drag from the confusion with the biomoral, and therefore the biopoltica. ”
As we know, says the Spanish philosopher, the practical problems have emerged in the four Biotica s basic factors:
1-of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology: transplantation of organs, clonacin, genetics engineering manipulation, etc.
2-their own social structure transformations in our era:
* Demogrfico increase, just development-induced industrial scientist.
* The situation of “neutralization of the social and policy of the ticos codes, moral or religious characteristic of different religious or political party, in function of the call mundializacin “Some prefer the terms globalizacin-international relations and expansion of companies associated with the economy democrticas market consumers.”
3-Well proposes a thesis that is the following approach:
the unit itself provides the Biotica problemtica not for a doctrinal unity. This unit derived from the common problemtica rene clinics problems, problems experimental scientist, politicians and the Moral aspects of the activity in this field scientist technician, but given that the expression “biotic doctrine” (which consist in the elaboration of decisions and agreed rules) is not far unvoco concept with a common meaning and all components which are the Biotica, because there are different versions of the Biotica, according to the principles adopted Biotica come from the Christian, Muslim, socialist, liberal or utilitarian.
* Criticism BIOTICA ARISING FROM THE BELMONT REPORT:
In the context of the proposed Well, the need to criticize from the philosophy, approaches emerged in the so-called Belmont Report, proposed by the Commission of the United States Congress who worked from 1974 to 1978 in elaboration.
The relevance of this criticism stems, in addition to its great interest for filosfica criticism of it, the influence of the approaches have in the development of Biotica.
The discussion topics about lies in the distinction between what we may call principles, which are of a general nature, and rules pertaining to the scope of the concrete, the application of rules or general principles individual cases, say.
The Belmont Report established as fundamental principles the principle of autonomy, that of charity, justice and the absence of malice.
In this case the distinction principles / rules filosficas lie the key issues presented by Biotica.
This issue is covered by the tradition Aristotle, explains Gustavo Bueno, since it is present the distinction between 1) the principles of prudent practices and 2) the practices of early “sindresis”  .
The important thing is for topics about Biotica lies in the fact that although there may be important biotic agreements on general principles, it is possible to disagree about the conclusions.
In this respect Well proposes a thesis, namely, the principles have no exceptions, and s rules have exceptions.
The fact that the early lack of exceptions due to its abstract character. However, the rules have exceptions “because the alternatives on which they-decide-the rules are not usually trade-offs, neither clear nor distinct, and fit joints limits”
The principles proposed in the Belmont Report are nothing but modern equivalents of the general principles sindresis “is to do good and avoid evil” that we can to equate with the principles of beneficence and calls Report of nonmaleficence. The same is true autonomay principles of justice, may be presented as equivalent to the standard categrico Kantian imperative, as is the autonomy of the will.
Well the confusion that complaint in the Belmont Report is given from the lack of definition of the parameters within which must be exercised, say, prudence.
The relevance of the principles for Biotica lies in the fact that “all who seek biotic forming his (…) must qualify extrnsecos criteria, moral politicians, Prudential is say, the principles.
The principles and rules of Biotica have to follow a thread should be in this proposal Well presented as a first “draft”, ie a first aproximacin the problem that must be reworked from discussions m s extensive and open discussions between the various investigations made or in progress. These principles and rules, along the lines of the Theory of the Closing Categorial are articulated in terms relationship with relations and operations of the “axis sintctico.”
We now focus on the principles and rules of the terms, and we refer you to read the article by Well, given the limited space and time disposicin we have in this work, and the relevance of other issues that we consider essential to expose your consideracin.
The essential terms are “corpreos human subjects.” Laws or rules are given to the individual will by the group, by social norms “says Bueno. The autodeterminacin, understood as a process in which the subject makes plans and programs from which their actions are executed, but is free autodeterminacin occurs in a context in which the subject has to adapt its behavior heternomas rules in force in the group that owns, besides COOPERATION itself with the social group.
The view of most interest to understand the proposal biotic Well, transcribe this text:
“(…) The field of biotic is primarily a field of individuals abstrada his personality, rather than a field of people (the field of law and even the policy).Because biotic primarily concerned orgnic components that are not people or canonical (but embryos, fetuses, monsters bispites or alleles), or have ceased to be (individuals in an irreversible coma, sick terminals, etc.).
We will outline some aspects of Biotica from a “global”, but which has important implications for Latin America, as we will check for below.
Traffic ORGANS OF CHILDREN AND IN A GLOBAL WORLD:
Case in point, as we know, included as one of the key points of techniques using pharmacists doctor to transplant organs and tissues, in addition to discussions of character and tico jurdico involving decisions of great importance for the community physician, involves the analysis of issues that are not nothing nice, but consider urgent and indispensable to the consideracin of all persons interested in a serious study of the most delicate aspects, from the point of view and human tico, of which I venture to highlight the use of organs and regulacino not in the world market for organs.
There is a certain silence in the media and little bibliographical information about it. However, we have major reports and several books and essays on what appears to be even a “booming business” in which collusion choke all kinds of people in the most low-class morality, d rom corrupt politicians , to doctor and even some of the most large companies in manufacturing of frmacos.
The most important base for my exhibition is provided by the researcher and philosopher Stephen A. POLITICAL Hasam in the year 1996 essay submitted to the XX Congress of the Latin American Sociology Association. His essay “traffic of infants and new insertion of Latin America in the world market” is in fact scary, but this does not mean that, when we know the reality of Latin America a little background, and reflects on Hasam the data provided on the issue of children and persons subject to the laws of the sacrosanct market, at least there are doubts about democrticos models, in terms of character and moral tico, when we find their way to address a very serious problem as we expose for below, as there is a strong reaction from world governments involved to solve the problem.
The UN asked the Human Rights Commission of research work of “contemporneas forms of slavery.”The research produced what we call the Eide report. The charge of the investigation, the lord Asbjorn Eide reported in a press conference on 1 August 1989 in the city of Geneva on that about a million of children around the world live in conditions slavery involving several ways: sale of infants for ADOPTION; prostitucin of children (eg is the so-called sex tourism), child pornography, child labor exploited without constraints of any kind, authentic or you slaves, whose work is benefiting bars of “famous” world, Debt securities by adults, children who act like criminals in the service of all kinds of mafias, and the utilization of minor for organ transplantation.
In fact there is a market for illegal ADOPTION children, as revealed on several occasions, and some of them politicians themselves leaders of countries of Latin America have testified to the existence of this macabre market, which will have nothing to envy the celebrated children’s genocidal Herod.
Some figures show this macabre aspect in which the Biotica est involved, markets, medicine, the very society they are trying to hide the phenomenon (the case being to defend the corrupt esc Scandal and the law?)-although it seems that in Europe and the United States and other countries as consumers of organs, the theme is almost complete tab. About 20 000 infants per year disappear in the US-Mexico border, about 3 thousand foot Brazilians are illegally sold abroad, there are about 20 thousand boys and girls prostitutes in the Philippines, India 400 thousand are subject to sex trade. The numbers are all over the Southeast called Asites: Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Korea. Now incorporated into this “market” that was Eastern Europe. Sex tourism is importantsima source of foreign exchange for the passes and enrichment for their corrupt leaders and mafia members.
The appearance of AIDS and improving techniques for transplantation have contribudo, apparently to increase the demand for organs for transplantation among the wealthy people of rich countries, especially the U.S., Europe Israel and surely among the upper classes of the poor countries.
The expert from the World Health organization (WHO), Dr. Jerzy Szszerban commented in the report to the journalist Anne Marie Mergia research that “the supply of organs can not meet demand and this shortage, more more importantly, causes an increase in commercial traffic in organs. ”
The WHO doctor said that there is a black market for organs.Prices for transplants in the United States were around 140 thousand dollars for the heart, 235 thousand for the pancreas, lungs and 70 000 to 51 000 dollars a wheel.
The secretary general of the International Association of Judges for Democracy (IADL), Rene Bridel Seal the danger of this illegal traffic of organs, and reason of a request from the WHO, the IADL elaborate principles to regulate the transplantation of organs, which was presented at the 44th World Health Assembly on May 13, 1991, containing nine points, which now highlight the fourth point: “No organ can be removed from a child for transplantation. The national sharee’ah can be exempted only if it is regenerated tissues. ”
Meanwhile, the number of applicants to receive an organ increases in Germany, the United States in all rich countries.
In this it is interesting reading the article by Ivan Illich in Le Monde Diplomatique, which is invited to reflect on the doctor practices model that is implemented in the rich countries, where the is total and absolute health, as suggested by Stephen Hasam, in line with articles of Le Monde Diplomatique, “a vision from a vein of life and death filosficas and cultural implications.”
It is a fact that in countries such as Egypt, Brazil, India Turquay the poor are offering their kidneys, blood and why not, an eye, or a horny, out of misery keeps the brink of death. I remember that recently, in Spain today, now EU member, an unemployed worker, in his despair, offers one of their kidneys in exchange for a permanent job, salary minimum.
The traffic of blood is well known, although the organs seems to be always hidden behind a gray veil of death. Indeed, it is interesting to note that the main consumer of human blood and plasma in the world has been the multinational pharmaceutical industry Germanic.
A great scandal occurred in Brazil reason trade of human blood, where they were involved, besides the poor marginalized people of the city of Perspolis, Hoechst’s laboratory in the city, in addition s staff of the faculty of medicine, including murder, “as if it were Chicago,” said Hasam.
Swedish Radio Riksradio-Network, denounced the January 7, 1979, and in turn denounced the journalist Aleman Siegrfried Pater, “In Haiti and in several locations in Brazil has found a method for the extraction and obtainment of blood price for export. Orphans and Small infants from large families living in economically distress are admitted to the calls as charitable institutions that function as though blood farms. ”
As we can see, the data that gives us Hasam work and others that he has handled in his essay, than any fiction, and Huxley’s Brave New World novel is a fairy tale to the side of reality the “Global Village.”
Hopefully, these allegations served, at least, to reflect and act accordingly, putting each one of us that is in their power to prevent this model of society tirnicas subject to the laws of the market, be challenged and new proposal social medicine and the health of our children and emerging companies, as the urgency of the situation is becoming evident dams.
We finished our intervention hacindonos echo the findings of Hasam, resuming his words:
“They spend the years and it is clear that the reluctance of the opininpblica-or who run it, that is, the media and their allied politicians and financial partners, and the states to recognize the incredible amount of traffic of infants and their multiple uses and purposes has been very tenacious. No wonder, since the acceptance of this implied the existence of crmenes against humanity perpetrated in bulk every year tens of thousands of infants in Latin America and the rich countries and “civilized” that import whole or in parts, living or dead. Also involve discovering openly and prosecute those consumers, are hese people, institutions, or chemistry multinational pharmaceutical industry, and the network of suppliers. Finally, we also accept that involve crimes against humanity crmenes wholesale and retail occur in peacetime
; They have nothing to do with states of war or any dictatorship that is not the dictatorship of the “market” in the civil passes, “democrticos” and “civilized” North and South. “War is Peace “George Orwell prophesied in 1984.”Also refused, quite rightly reminds us Hasam, the existence of Nazi death camps, despite complaints, and governments, enemies of the Third Empire Aleman (Hitler’s Third Reich) of the United States and England, denied and even hid these complaints and, as happens today, refuses to “incredible”, says that does not exist, this macabre traffic of organs for children and adults in this “glorious” century ends.What wonders we provide Western technoscience for the new millennium?.And shows us, the proud, the global diffusion TIME magazine, in particular its last number. It seems that almost demigods will be authentic in the XXI century (or sernms, let us be accurate and rigorous) the “haves” of the world happy), but some demigods necesitarn rituals of human sacrifices to live as such quasi-immortal, YMS all the pain and evil.
Margarita Boladeras; Biotica, Madrid; Ed.Sntesis, 1998
Gustavo Bueno; The meaning of life, Oviedo (Spain); Ed.Pentalfa, 1996
– – – – – & – – – -, “Principles and rules of a materialistic Biotica,” in Journal Basilisk; 2.poca, N25, January-March 1999 (Apdo.360-33080 Oviedo ( Spain)
Joseph Fletcher, Ethics of genetics control, Buenos Aires; Ed.Aurora, 1978
ANBAL Guzman Avalos, “The Catholic Church and assisted reproduction,” in magazine
Jurdicos Studies, New little, N3, 1996; Innstituto Jurdicas Research, University esq.7 November VeracruzanaGaleana Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico CP 91050
Stephen A. Hasam, “traffic of infants and new insertion of Latin America in the global marketplace.”In Latin America the collective book (violence and misery in the twilight of the century), Carlos Figueroa (ed.)Eds.Benemrita Autonomous University of Puebla, Institute of Social Sciences and Humanities, Latin American Sociology Association
—- —- — —-;” Sex tourism and sexual exploitation of minors “; Article copyright UNESCO.Para little Indian-magazine “Dialogue” (UNESCO) September 1999
Pablo Huerta, “The Manifesto of the Biotica secular” in the internet web magazine Biotica Cued (Argentina) located at the URL
Ivan Illich, “The obsession for perfect health”, in monthly Le Monde Diplomatique, March 1999 edition espaola; on the Internet can be accessed at URL
JPPapart; Ph.Chastonay and D. Froidevaux, “biotechnological products for the rich”, in
monthly Le Monde Diplomatique, March 1999 edition espaola; on the Internet can be accessed at URL
VVAA, An Introduction to Biotica, Mexico, Mendez Eds.1997
DOCUMENTS AND AGREEMENTS:
“Israeli Anti-Cloning Law” is available on the web at this URL
“HIGH COMMISSIONER OF THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS
Declaration on the utilization of Scientific and Technological Progress in the interest of peace and the benefit of mankind “(Resolution 3384 (XXX) of 10 November 1975
COUNCIL OF EUROPE Biotica Convention of Asturias (Oviedo, 4 April 1997)
Convention for the PROTECTION of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to applications Biologay Medicine. “Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine
Is available on the internet is web at this URL
2) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LAW, WITH TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC
THE ETHICS AND MORALS: STICS DEONTOLOGAY PROFESSIONALS.
Once we have seen a historical overview of the policy and morality, we consider important for a course in moral philosophy, pose the kind of relationship that exists between these activities and the practice of law in a world ever more steeped in activities and practices identified by the Science and the Technique.
The policy deontolgico est every dams present in the fields academics and professionals. We think it is now when professionals from different areas of knowledge and activity estnms scientist and technicians concerned about the moral implications and practices of their various professions? There has been until recent years a moral and policy implicacin acts of physicians, or the activities of journalists or researchers in the fields of science?
The above questions have tried to answer the philosophers who work in the field of what is known as deontolgica policy.
And we have this set of social practices law because there is a relationship between these factors. What kind of relationship is established between law and morality and science and technology policy? A complex relationship for the various categories that make up these sciences and technicians. And the complexity comes from two sources: one is the very stuff of which “work” each of these sciences otcnicas. The other source being, as it were, external to their own activities involved in the relationship. It is the society that “lives” these realities arising from the practice TECHNOLOGICAL and scientists, an activity that increasingly determines degree of social relations and thus the moral attitude and policy of members of these societies.
Try to prepare a brief summary overview of the implications of this topics about wearing our analysis to the following activities: science informaciny and technicians of the communication, the genetics and engineering doctor practices.
1 – Communication specialists are trained in specialized schools for specialized teachers, and part of the communication industry.There are thousands of books, articles, debates, about the work of journalists. It has been known to all the communication media “Fourth.”
Nolle-Neumann, The Spiral of Silence  , refers to the work of journalists or comuniclogos as a key work of this democrticas societies, while they make up what is called the through informants, the opininpblica. We believe the best book written in Spanish on this topic is that of Professor Felicsimo Valbuena, Complutense University, entitled Teora General Information  . Try to expose the problem of the reasons ticos, decisions and stages of moral development of journalistic activity. The problem arises because there ticos dilemmas in decisions taken by the journalist about how to do their work, which, according to studies cited by Valbuena, different situations may be classified according cases and using the model of stages of Kohlberg’s moral development, and also drawing on the psychology of Abraham Maslow. In a first stage for us to be journalists who do not know or want to know the Ticos codes and Actan that way to avoid problems with relationship to the higher power, others decide to act by calculating the consequences for your career or professional advancement, as their moral compass be placed in care for their own interests.There are journalists who think their work has implications for people who are going, within a few consequences that have to do with the welfare and rights of the majority of people.There are some journalists who engage in universal moral principles, and feel the force of Moral and / or Religion, and are those who are in the last stage of the classification referred Valbuena.
S what we say, in the case of journalistic policy, is that their values differ from each other so that we can only say that there is a lack of rules, that the policy of the responsibility here the practice is carried in most cases against the policy of the conviction. Journalists, especially in cases involving limit on the call Reason of State, is limited to maintain a policy line that will not complicate its relations with the Power political. The conviction that they must report events affecting wing society is faced with the policy of responsibility, and journalists always have this ass cules SERN the effects of the way of informing polmicos issues. Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman have been working on this problem in his book The guardians of freedom  Let us say qu these two critics of the journalistic profession, “the propaganda model suggests that” PURPOSE social communication media is to inculcate and defend the order of the day on Economic, Social and policies of the privileged groups that dominate the state and society in the country. PURPOSE The media play this different ways: through the selection models themes, the distribution of interests, the articulation of issues, filtering of information, the emphasis and tone, as and keeping the debate within the limits of acceptable premises ”
2 – the genetics is a field engineer ever more comprehensive activity and its social scientist are of such magnitude that the politicians have to worry about becoming more by this field that includes large multinational, multimillion dollar research at universities and above all, a policy and moral implicacin serious consequences.
Foodstuffs referred transgnicos polmica estn generating world because no one knows for sure the implications for human health and the ecosystem.The compass manufacturers of products such as corn, and soybeans transgnica, dams are increasingly concerned not give a negative image about their industrial activities, as is increasingly opininpblica m s aware of the hazards, of nutrition based on genetics products handled by these comrades.The most famous case is the American company Monsanto, which has developed a pesticide, Roundup, which is used on seeds produced by the same compaay that resist the pesticide itself, but whose effects alimentaciny on the environment are not known and no doubt your character safe.
Military in the field also find cases bleeding from the use of the technique, we can cite two cases.The use of mines in war and the use of depleted uranium in NATO bombing.
The international sharee’ah policy hardly seems in this regard. Vested interests and reasons of state clebres sadly end up being the perfect excuse to carry out all kinds of immoral actions.
3 – In the scope of the practice doctor opens a huge gap policies and moral issues that are being overwhelmed by the growing complexity of science and the MIDC technique and advances in science natural and biological. The doctor discussed at Biotica Comits hospital issues such as euthanasia, abortion, eugenics, etc.. But these debates go beyond the very practice doctor to get to the other layers of the social body.The political class discussion on these issues in the game who are in millions of dollars in research investments.The case of the human genome research is a case for being the most patent displays the contradictions we face in the coming years. On the one hand, the interests of multinationals, not always as non-interest politicians of the countries involved. On the other hand, The implication of all of society, often manipulated by the reports of the media and the rhetorical politics and even some scientists involved. Ever since Aldous Huxley described this world happy and the English philosopher Bertrand Russell in his book The perspective scientist or medical Nobel Jacques Monod in Chance and polmico need to stop seeing the problems that there will be an to face the XXI century, changes have been happening so quickly, we think that Philosophy has lost the pace of progress own scientists and technicians, and perhaps is why the m doctors, the biologists, engineers genetics, have been working in the construction of their own moral principles and ticos. The topics about is: can we build a new policy and a new morality that ignores the values of our Western tradition? The answer to this fundamental topics about not find in the Anglo-Saxon philosophers, or the policy of communicative action, or the policy of the contract or neocontractualism of Rawls or Dworkin. S meeting proposed Theoretically still underdeveloped, in need of more space discusiny debate, from the cultures of the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, and certainly also from Hispanoamrica but which should be promoted in forums travs and greater dissemination by mass communication. Again I suggest reading an article by the philosopher of law and morality Garzn Ernesto Valdés, entitled “Some Considerations policies on organ transplantation”  .
Citing Toulmin said Garzn Valds that medicine has saved the policy, but adds the Argentine philosopher “also has made it much more difficult.”Difficult in the sense that moral questions about donors of organs, the market for organs, the extraction of organs and priorities to be a recipient of an organ, are of such magnitude. For more details please see the end of the heading “Problems of biotic life.”
Some researchers see the human clonacin a path to the production of tissues and even organs, from the manipulation of calls clulas mother, and this field of research opens new you working in the field of morality and policy, an undeveloped, once again, we see that science is ahead of morality.
We have also seen how a materialist philosopher, as is the case of Gustavo Bueno, approaches these issues, but we also consider proposals from non-materialistic philosophies such as Thomism, ie The proposal of the Catholic Church, which takes into account the practices and moral ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas. As we have already sealed, the only non-Anglo-Saxon philosophers do not accept these theories, considering them metaphysics, but it follows a rejection based on the moral issues and policy considerations arising from the existence and acceptance of a natural rights of a natural reason, and so on.
The policies deontolgicas: refer to what should or should not be done, in the practice of various professions. No concerns wings consequences, but the duties. The clashes with the policy deonotologa consequentialist. According to the deontological there are certain acts that are good or bad for s themselves. The problem for deontolgico policy is twofold, in this sense, then there is the difficulty of knowing cules acts are good and which ones are bad, on the one hand, and secondly, it is difficult to establish a clear delimitacin between act and omisin.
Nozick, for example, arises from a position deontolgica, there deontolgicamente constrained events.Distinguishes between acts with agent-neutral elements and agent-relative elements.The case of doing something to achieve as much as possible, when we kill an innocent to save many lives ..The deontological tells me I should not kill, and in this case agent-relative deontological.
What matters most to discuss whether the model of moral or utilitarian model of moral deontolgico estn right about what is good and what is right and what is wrong or bad, is contrast the different theories about the moral act, freedom and the matter of the legitimacy of moral actions, focusing not only from the religion customs, but try to achieve a moral theory to explain possible solutions to pressing problems that have been sealed in this section.
I would like to conclude by recalling an aspect not mentioned so far on morality and ethics. This is a draft submitted by the theologians Hans KHN, a global policy based on religious values. A first draft of his theory was presented in his book Design of a global policy (ed.Trotta, 2 ed. Spanish, 1991), but has been widely developed in a second book originally published in 1997 in Spanish alemny the year 2000.The book is very suggestive title of a global policy for the politics economay  . KHN makes a very well crafted critique of the manner in which Kissinger understands the policy, as real politik, conception in which the reason of state ms est consideracin all of any other than to maintain power. Quote KHN the admired “master” Kissinger, judo Aleman Morgenthau who emigrated to the United States on the time of the Nazi rise to power in Germany. Morgenthau was a great admirer of Nietzsche and did not hide his influence in his politics by the fact of being a European in the U.S.. But the conception of politics of power, est based on the idea of Nietzschean will to power. National Security as a model of American foreign politics implemented by Kissinger when he headed the common foreign and Secretary of State during the Nixon administration, is clearly influenced by morgenthaniana. The consequences of such practices concepciny politics are, according to the criticism of KHN, because of the crisis of values in all the practice ticos world of international relations. We will not expand on the problems posed KHN and their proposals, based on the religion, of course, as no less pruning in telogen. But end up discussing how difficult it is to believe that their proposals on the policy and morality in business is something more than wishful thinking on his part. The global economy, such as Today it is organized, is a model that takes into account all down any moral or Costa Rican model, except the one representing the current model’s implementacin transnational capitalism. I believe that all models to be exhibited in the faculties of economics, are mere ideological and propagandistic covers to try to present to society the way divisiny international labor organization as something intr NSEC good in the sense of Moore, or anglosajn moral utilitarianism. From here is where we must begin any attempt to critique these aspects economay deontolgico of world trade, in terms of respect or Violation of Human Rights.
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Apel, Luhman, Marramao, et al. , Reason, ethics and politics. (The conflict in modern societies), Barcelona, Anthropos, 1989
TTAA, Kierkegaard vivant, Pars, Gallimard, 1966
Aristteles; Ethics Nicmaco, Mexico, Porra, 1982
Aristteles; Moral (Eudemian), Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1972
Jean Baudrillard, Culture and simulation, Barcelona; Kairs, 1987
Mauricio Beuchot; Human Rights. (Legal positivism and natural law), Mexico, UNAM, 1995
Henri Bergson, Les deux Sources de la morale et de la religion, Paris, PUF, 1984
Richard Brandt, Teora policy, Madrid, Alianza Universidad, 1982
Gustavo Bueno; The meaning of life, Oviedo; Pentalfa, 1996
Alberto CARDNE; The upcoming and others; Barcelona, Icaria, 1990
Charlesworth, The Biotica in liberal society, Great Britain, Cambridge UP, 1996
Ronald Dworkin, law is a system of rules?, Mexico, UNAM, 1977
Abraham Edel; The method in policy theory, Madrid, Tecnos, 1968
Sigmund Freud, The discomfort of culture, Madrid, Biblioteca Nueva (Vol VIII OC), 1974
Erich Fromm, To be or have; Mexico, FCE, 1980
Hope Gurza, existentialist reading of the Celestina, Madrid, Gredos, 1977
Jrgen Habermas, Moral consciousness and communicative action, Barcelona, Peninsula, 1985
Jrgen Habermas; writings on morality and ethics, Barcelona; Paids, 1987
Jrgen Habermas, Theory of the communicative action. (Accessories and previous studies); Madrid; Ctedra, 1989
Hartmann Gilbert, The nature of morality, Mexico, UNAM, 1983
Marvin Harris, anthropologist An Introduction to General, Madrid, Alianza
Thomas Hobbes; Leviatn, Mexico, UNAM, 1984
WD Hudson, the contemporary moral philosophy, Madrid, Alianza, 1974
William James, Pragmatism, Madrid, Aguilar, 1975
Jnger Ernst and M. Heidegger; About nihilism Barcelona Paids, 1994
Emmanuel Kant, Fundamentacin of the metaphysics of morals.Reason criticism of the practices. Perpetual Peace, Mexico, Porra, 1972
Emmanuel Kant, Criticism of Pure Reason, Madrid, Alfaguara, 1989
Hans Kelsen, General State Teora, Mexico, National Edition, 1979
Hans Kelsen, Socialism and State, Mexico S. XXI, 1982
Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling, Madrid; Hyspamrica, 1985
Soren Kierkegaard, The Concept of Dread, Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1983
Jacques Leclercq, Les grandes lignes de la Philosophie morale; Louvain, Louvain Univ Pub, 1964
Niklas Luhman, Society and the system: the ambition of the theory, Barcelona; Paids, 1990
George Lukacs, The assault on reason. (The path of irrationalism from Schelling to Hitler), Mexico, Grijalbo, 1976
Herbert Marcuse, Ethics of the Revolution, Madrid, CSIC, 1994
Anselmo Mataix, the moral standard of John Dewey, Madrid; Magazine
George Edward Moore, Principia Ethica, Mexico, UNAM, 1983
Barrington Moore, Injustice: social bases of obedience and rebellion, Mexico, UNAM, 1989
Gonzalo Puente Ojea; The myth of the soul.(Science and religion), Madrid, Siglo XXI, 2000
Eduardo and Fernando Rabossi Salmern (eds.), Ethics and analysis (Vol. I), Mexico, UNAM, 1985
John Rawls, The freedoms; Barcelona; Paids, 1996
Olivier Rebod, Nietzsche, Kant critic, Barcelona, Anthropos, 1993
David Ross, Foundations of ethics, Buenos Aires; EUDEBA, 1972
Marshall Sahlins, The Use and Abuse of biology, Madrid, Siglo XXI, 1990
Adolfo Sanchez Vzquez, Ethics, Mexico, Grijalbo, 1979
Jean-Paul Sartre, Cahiers pour une Morale, Paris, Gallimard, 1983
Fernando Savater; Ethics for Amador, Barcelona, Ariel, 1993
Fernando Savater; invitation Tico, Barcelona, Anagram, 1982
FWJ Schelling, Research filosficas the essence of human freedom and objects related to it; Barcelona, Anthropos, 1989
Arthur Schopenhauer; Aphorismen sur la sagesse de la vie, Paris, PUF, 1943
Arthur Schopenhauer, freedom and honor, Buenos Aires, Thor, s / f
Seneca, Moral Works, Paris, Garnier, s / f
Rene Simon, Moral Barcelona, Herder;
Spinoza, Ethics, Madrid, Alianza, 1987
Stephen Toulmin, The place of reason in policy, Madrid, Alianza, 1979
After Eugene, Philosophy of the Future, Barcelona, Ariel, 1983
After Eugenio; The limits of the world, Barcelona, Ariel, 1985
After Eugenio; The adventure filosfica, Madrid; Mondadori, 1988
After Eugenio; logic of the limit, Barcelona, Destino, 1991
Eugenio After, The age of the Spirit, Barcelona, Destino, 1994
Gianni Vattimo; ethics of interpretation, Barcelona; Paids, 1991
CH Waddington, The Ethical Animal, Chicago, Univ Of Chicago Press, 1967
Albrecht Wellmer, Ethics and dialog.(Elements of moral judgments in Kant and the policy discourse), Barcelona, Anthropos, UAM, 1994
Ludwig Wittgenstein; Leons et conversations.Conference sur l tique, Paris, Gallimard, 1971
Dieter Wyss, Structures of morality, Madrid, Gredos, 1975
Xavier Zubiri, on Man, Madrid, Alianza, 1986
“Isegora” N 9 (1994) “Faces of Liberalism”, Madrid, CSIC, 1997
“Isegora” N 16 (1997) “Ius Gentium: policy, politics and international relations”, Madrid, CSIC, 1997
Spanish literature and essays, in the field of the moral implications of themselves.
It is known that two of the most important philosophers Spaniards, Unamuno and Ortega y Gasset, wrote their own essays on Don Quixote. But we believe that from our present filosfica activity is not suitable, perhaps, this matter due attention. To quote a text by Alasdair Mac Intyre of his book After Virtue, a text quiz can be useful to us for what we propose: “If human life is understood as a trnsito to travs of damages and dangers, moral yfsicos, who faces and overcomes a worse or better and with more or less success, the virtues and qualities encontrarn a posesiny whose exercise leads to success in the company and vice in turn, as qualities that lead to failure. Therefore, every human life embody a history whose life and dependern configuration of what is deemed to be daoy danger, success and failure, progress and its opposite, in short, is how understood and valued. Answering these questions requires answers as well, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, when asked about what are the virtues and vices. The answer to this coherent set of questions gave the poets of the heroic society Not the same as he Sfocles, but the bond is the same in both, and reveals how the belief in certain kinds of virtues and the belief that human life shows some narrative order, estn linked internally. ” 29.
I refer briefly to a Spanish philosopher, exiled in Mexico, after the defeat of the Republicans at the hands of Franco. Jos is Gaos, who introduced in Mexico historicist thought had learned from his teacher Ortega y Gasset in Madrid. In the sense mentioned by Mac Intyre, reading Don Quixote by philosophers influenced by Dilthey’s historicism, leaves a deep imprint in the way of understanding and philosophy on American soil. Essays have been written comparing Hundred years of Solitude Garcia Marquez of Colombia with the works of Cervantes that we have been referring. Jos Gaos see the thought in Spanish from the perspective that builds from literature, painting, art, Spanish American. From Jos Mart Guilln Nicols, Traven or from the book The Colonel no one writes, it is the idea of a world not governed by mere reason geometric ( Descartes) for the reason of state (Hobbes), but a world of possibilities open filosfico that what has been defined as a utopia. Gaos, in an essay written in 1967 insists that “the main theme of Don Quixote is just the reason of the sinrazny reality.”The strength of the theater, the representation, in which the real and present us with soad in order to reflect the public about the moral meaning of life. The utility must justify his philosophy of life, to life. We mentioned this approach to the study of moral problems, because we believe that Spain does not seem to be important, you can even speak of a certain contempt, who see art, theater, literature, and outside or at least filosfica tangential activity, when Anglo passes have worked in this direction and continues hacindolo. The most notorious case that comes at this point to mind is that of philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre francs. His conception of human freedom is reflected in plays such as The Trojan Women and The Devil and the Good Lord, as we can say that Calderon filosfica explains his vision of the world and of morality in his works theater, as if life is sleep.
Voltaire (1694-1778) represents the conjunction of Cartesian rationalism with empiricism English. Proposes to eliminate religion from society, as regarded source of fanaticism and cruelty. On the other hand, admired the facts of the Whig revolution of the seventeenth century.
The ideals of the revolution Farncesa, derived from the phrase “typical and
“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”, become the base policy and politics of European societies and Hispanoamrica, as the constitution SERN the United States, after liberation English Crown. And before introducing us to this scope, to be in addition, complex terrain, filosficamente speaking, we consider it relevant to make some comments on
Kant is a philosopher of the illustration. Their motto “atrvete to know” for yourself, by reason itself, means an attack on the metaphysics and besides, you know, trying to overcome the problems faced by both rationalist and empiricist by . Let us now use a book anglosajn scope to enter the realm of criticism, which is where we must move if we do real philosophy. In its policy Teora, Richard Brandt proposes two “proof of principles ticos”.The first is consistency. Belief states that a person practices must be consistent. Ticos inconsistent statements do not establish ningn definitive statement about the type of desirable behavior or correct. Moreover, the general test, according to Brandt, applies only to statements ticos individuals, as desirable, proper, required, &.
The topics about moral duty or obligation, which is the foundation of morality Kant, is released by Brabdt into question, since according l can detect the following cases where you see the inconsistency of the theory to Kantian moral about the maximum and the need for universalizacin, every moral act to be evaluated according the scope
universal, ie that could be put as a model for all, according to the natural law which must be agreed. The criticism of Brandt is presented as follows:
“We can now understand why Kant’s proposal is unacceptable, at least as it is presented. 1.Very immoral defined as the maximum can be both objectively and subjectively unacceptable acceptable to the agent if the agent is an insensitive person and in a position est favorable.2. To many to be a serious objecin which his theory leaves open the possibility that a maximum be universalized for one person but not for another. Many people think, with good reason, that if an act is right at all, is right for everyone in the same circumstances. 3.If an agent wants to justify an act, decide to consider it in terms of a maximum as SPECIFIC escrpulos not have to accept it as a guiding rule of conduct around the world. According to the theory of Kant, everybody want to justify their action as it can always get it. ”
One of the most complex problems in Kant’s policy is the Determination of the will. In the third antinomy Kant raises this issue so that should use, ultimately, to something that he himself is problemtico, God, to ensure absolute respect for human morality. Thus, the moral of Kant continues vindose the need to resort to metaphysics entities, so we fall into a paradox or unresolvable contradiction from the epistemological theory of the Criticism of Pure Reason. Our ability to understand the causal relationship of the phenomena of nature is limited in that the categories should fenomnico material from that space and time have been organized in the first moment of the captacin objects. Since we can not fully aware of the phenomena and their causes, but the reason you try, we must postulate a freedom to avoid the pitfalls of determinism that will prevent human freedom. The paradox is raised by Kant as follows:
Thesis: Causality, according to the laws of nature, is not the only from which can be derived from all the phenomena that constitute the world, but it must be admitted, in addition, a free causality to account for these phenomena.
Antithesis: Freedom does not exist, because everything happens in the real world in accordance with the laws (causes) of Nature.
Idealism is the option of declaring both the thesis and antithesis to be true. To try to explain the oposiciny maintain the existence of freedom Kant introduces the distinction between the phenomena and the phenomenon, so that causal determinism is maintained in the order of the phenomena, the world the things we see and touch. The possibility of a free causality Kant is situated within the scope of the phenomenon, which manifests itself to pure thought.
I would like at this stage to a criticism that I believe essential to the study of morality as we have proposed. This is the criticism of Schweitzer, which includes Hume, Bayle, Rousseau, Voltaire, Wolf, Lessing, among others. Praises in these terms:
“The creed of the religion of the reason is simply the optimistic conception of the world politico-phraseological reproduced with Christian, that is, preserving inside the Tesma Christian belief in immortality . An omniscient Creator and everything has benvolo the world, and holds it accordingly. The man is endowed with free will, and discover in their razny in his heart the moral law which must guide individuals and the human race to perfection, and to comply in the world to God’s towering PURPOSE. Each contains within it a soul indestructible, he feels that his moral life is the supreme happiness, and after death enters a state of pure, spiritual. ” 27
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) is a big fan of Kant. This philosopher, known as pessimistic slogans of European philosophers was an important influence on Nietzsche. His main book, entitled The World as Will and representation, is that there are two forces in the world fighting each s, Will and representation. Will represent, say, the world of existence in the midst of a nature that determines our actions, a world that does not support but the struggle, life is understood as a struggle of will travs domain. But the representation is the search for a departure from this world of determinations. Only, according to Schopenhauer, through the music is able to overcome this world where the struggle, always dominated by the Will, may be at least bounded by the Hindu equivalent of Nirvana to the representation travs No, this is the reason pure practices within the meaning of Kant. The criticism of Schopenhauer Schweitzer plays, along with Nietzsche, the two most important philosophers of the nineteenth century, preventing conduct which, on issues arising with the irrationalism of the French Revolution in As for the intolerance that led to the Terror, and on the other hand, the idealism that he could not overcome the romantic optimism of the Idea of Progress developed in the era of the illustration.Schweitzer said the following, which can certainly help us better understand why the renewed interest in this time of rise of postmodernism called by both German philosophers.
“Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, remain little help to find what you need, that is, a system of social policy that is also true policy. Interested only in an individualistic policy which can not develop a social policy, offer incentives that, valuable as they are by s alone can not contain desmoralizacin up the general view of life. ”
Ticos Schopenhauer proposes three principles: a policy of resignacin, a policy of universal compassion and a policy of renunciacin the world.
The criticism of Schweitzer is blunt: “The universal perspective of Schopenhauer is not, strictly speaking, but above – policy, as the Brahmins, as it is revealed as a constant negation of the world and life.”
In the eighteenth century, companies discovered by Europeans, considered as “natural” lead to the idealistic vision in which justice reigns, purity, brotherhood, freedom. According to Rousseau (1712-1778), Western culture and civilization are the result of oppression, hatred and inequality. Rousseau agrees with the rationalist optimism about the idea of progress. The bean is not done, but civilization corrupted man, according to the Genevan philosopher. Our interest in this philosopher is, besides its way of dealing with the fra rationality of the Enlightenment and its faith in reason scientist and technicians, fern introduce a factor of feeling in policy. However, no matter now remember their aportacina the philosophy politics in the book Social Contract . Whose full title is the social contract Politics or principles of political. Est based society, from the stage of the state of nature, in a general system of inequality, which is notorious manifestacinms of slavery .. To end this situation of alineacin of man, men, to achieve justice, should do the following, as is stated by Rousseau in that book:
“Finding an association which defends and protects with the whole common force the person and property of each partner, in which each, by binding to all, not yet more to follow as it , and remains as free as before. “This is the form of association which is to Rousseau’s social contract, which can be summarized in these terms:
“Each of us puts in common his person and all his power under the supreme direction of general will, and receive, in addition, each member as an indivisible whole.”
The criticism that can be done to Rousseau, as to the idea of a general will, as a pact between all members of the community, as expounded Salvador Giner, is as follows: “His conception of the will is very abstract and general is a homognea society, the various groups do not come cleaved by antagonistic interests. ” 28.
In addition, from the criticism of Giner, Rousseau’s proposal will be an “abolition of individual will, of free will of the people that he himself said. This contradiction is blatant throughout his work, and can not be settled by saying that one of its paradoxes. “
Descartes (1596-1650) and Espinosa (1632-1677), along with Leibniz, are considered the most relevant rationalists. Its importance lies, among other things, the method which uses a model used hitherto.Mathematical reasoning must be, what it means in the context of the seventeenth century the use of geometry.We are going to pay more attention Espinosa, whose work bears the title chief ethics.Geometric order according demonstrated. DeCarta, in terms of moral and policy issues, not too complicated, ie not going to give some tips on how to live without complications, when he says that we must avoid trying to change the habits of people who is best adapted to them. On the other hand, fails to fall into the mechanism, which implies the lack of freedom and agree that man is free because it has a soul whose cogito is endorsed by God Somehow
(The God of the philosophers).
Espinosa, however, get to take as active part in contests of character politics, that the Jews it evicted from his community with some violence, as in his book Theologico Treaty POLITICAL conducts a frontal attack judah the theocracy. 25 His theory of knowledge conflicts with the Cartesian dualism, as conceived only tricky substance, which “shows”, say, under two modes of extensiny the thought. The laws of thought are the same as the laws of nature. But in the field politics, freedom is based on individual freedom, which is achieved through intelligence. The passions are not only inadequate knowledge of our affections. The free man is one who has a clear understanding of their feelings and so can dominate. The fundamental virtues are for Espinosa firmness, generosity and strength. Gustavo Bueno puts it this way: “The strength will be, the main virtue ethics. And using the terminology of the policy of Benito Espinosa (Part III, propositions 58 and 59, part IV, proposicin 30, &) diramos policy that supreme virtue of the strength (or strength) of the soul , appears as firmly when the action (or desire) of each individual strives to preserve his being (the firm considered policy prevents any action designed to make my body what I want, limiting the possibility policy of suicide), and manifests as generous at the time in which each individual strives to help others. The strength is therefore not just selfishness or altruism, because the only strength is firmly in that it is strength, as strength is only in virtue of generosity. A generous detached from the policy ceases to be strong and, although it may continue to be crucial in the moral sense, but can be bad
(Evil, evil) from the point of view tico: as we shall see, the moral virtues and practices relate to each s dialectic. ” 26
As for the topics about the foundation of natural law, in Espinosa found a different relation to natural law as proposed by Vitoria. Francisco de Vitoria, the line is an important reason of a natural law that transcends it. For Espinosa is not as, since the reason it is right. Secularizacin process is clear. The human reason goes to the fore as the generation of the right, the approach Spinoza. The state supreme goal is freedom. In Theologico Tractatus Politicus, chapter XVI, “the principles of community politics,” we read:
“For right or natural law institution just understand the rules of the real nature of each type, according to which we conceive of each as naturally determined to exist and act in a concrete way …In this regard we do not do any distinction between men and natural realities modems …Every author of any action, carried out under the laws of nature, has a sovereign right, then act according their natural Determination …But the natural right of every man is not determined by sound reason, but by the will and power, this is normal because nature has given them an alternative and effective faculty refused to live according the laws of a sane spirit …It follows that the law of natural institution, under which all men are born and in their majority, live, no action whatsoever to prohbe exception of those that no one wanted or may
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote one of the masterpieces of philosophy politics, published in 1651 under the title Leviatn, or matter, form and power of an ecclesiastic and civil republic . Some have summarized his work by saying that preaches morality and utilitarianism in despotism in politics. The Leviatn is a monster, composed of human beings, endowed with a life whose origin stems from human reason, but under the pressure of circumstances and needs fell through the work of the passions, in civil war and the disintegration, which is death. The book is a criticism of the Church and its politics. According to the proposal of Hobbes, the new state English
Must eliminate obscurantism and firmly supersticiny should exclude all the defects of the previous church system, to become a true kingdom of light and science through a secular and rationalist.
The social and political, in which Hobbes wrote his book, is that of a civil confrontation that pits supporters of the Absolute monarchy in England and those who defend the parliamentary monarchy. John Locke as the advocate of parliamentary monarchy, against Hobbes. But it is also interesting to remember that this is little product, in large part on the development of the fighting between Protestants and Catholics, which led to the Reformation of Luther and his expressions Calvinists, but no less important was the influence Counter-call, which are mainly responsible for the Jesuits. Let me highlight one issue that I consider relevant to our study of morality, sealed by Salvador Giner, on these considerations:
“Apart from his achievements in the field of social ideas, Vitoria, along with Erasmus of Rotterdam, the founder of so-called Christian humanism, which holds, against the dark ideas of Ockham, Luther and Calvin, the human mind, however est upset that sin – can know moral truth. ” 24
The concept of freedom of Hobbes is based on one’s own strength, contrary to Locke, for whom there is a natural right, which is constitutive of human freedom. Hobbesian Leviatn defines freedom in the following terms: “that man is free, in what they can do for their strength and ingenuity, are not obstacles to do what he wants.”
But this freedom is not given in the “state of nature” in which, for Hobbes, man is a wolf to man. For this freedom is in, the authoritarian state is necessary to protect the men of war and civil strife.
John Locke (1632-1704), by contrast, argues that man is free in the natural state, and its two basic principles or natural rights, for freedom will mean the right of property and the right to security.
The crucial difference between the conception of freedom between the two British philosophers, is that, for Hobbes, man is free when the state allows, as in the previous state, the state of nature, there is no chance of being free. Locke argued that man is free because it already has certain rights in the state of nature, that is, before joining the State POLITICAL basis already exists for the freedom and rights, which are “natural.” Locke defines freedom in the following terms: “the Freedom of men under government is to have a stable and permanent rge to adjust his life to l, common all members of that society and made by the legislative power erected in it. ”
John Locke, considered the “father” of liberal politicians and Economic, means that for the fundamental rights derived from the need we all have to preserve life itself, guarantee freedom, it must be a social pact in which men organize travs of the executive, legislative and judicial branches, as private property to ensure the safety of individual citizens who have held the social pact, in which case the State liberalism theory.