Filosfico Dictionary of Voltaire, gives us a suggestive aproximacin the concept of morality.
“Morality does not consist in the supersticin or ceremonies, and there is nothing common with the dogmas.Never repeat enough that dogmas are different in each country, and that morality is the same for all men who use the gift of reason. Morality comes from God, as light, and superstitions are only darkness. ”
We do however, of interest, citing the comments made in a note Arancn Ana Martinez (Ed.Temas edition of Today), which states:
“As the moral, to Voltaire, est based on reason (and the reason is the only authentic revelation that God gives to men), is independent of religious and few. We have already sealed sometimes purely rationalist conception that does not hold in our days, for historical and social factors and development of our perceptive sensitivity valoracin change the facts. ”
Morality can be seen as an unwritten rule, which arises from the tradition and human customs. The concept has its root in the Greek ethos, which proposed Cicero translated as morality, brass mor (Moris), custom.
In terms Aristteles find the ethos related to virtue. And it meant the capacity of individuals aimed at achieving the goals necessary for life in common, in the polis. This means that to Aristteles and Greeks, virtue has to do with politics.
Drawing on the above, we suggest that there is a connection between morality, ethics and law politics. But this aseveracin must be substantiated.
We see continuacincmo defines the moral problem from a text anglosajn world (The Oxford Companion to Philosophy)
“Ms word trial is appropriate for itself that determines the deliberacin about morality? . Or are we looking for more, when we reflect on a situation that makes us moral perplexity, clarify and stabilize a feeling response
attraction or repulsion? ”
In this context, Hawthorn offers the case of a painter to choose the hue of the shadow of his painting, when there is no pre-existing reality that it constria gueo. However, it warns, we can argue against moral relativity based on the different feelings and emotions about it, that even these feelings estn properly subject to moral judgments, as est love, as this one can acquire corrupt forms.
In the above two tables are synoptic Compendium, which allow us to get an idea about how the topics about about the moral and policy are raised in the world anglosajn of our times.
In the first table are as title: The Moral Philosophy (or policy).Establishing a division in moral philosophy applied theorists and moral philosophy.
In terms of moral philosophy Theoretically, it is subdivided into two: the moral theorists and moral theorists metate as standard policy.
The metate in turn implies the following subdivisions:
1-the nature of morality: it refers to questions about the objectivity of morality (moral realism, subjectivism, relativism) and the nature of responsibility and its connection with free will
2-la moral psychology: it examines the moral motivation (which was connected with the matter of moral responsibility and free will through the “Philosophy of mind.”Another aspect involved in this section of moral psychology to understand the theory of decisions involving the logic and game theory. Lastly, the descriptive matter of the policy.
3-the epistemological moral is to study two key issues, namely: the nature of moral knowledge and the nature of moral arguments. The first is the issue of justification of moral views and the second logic Dentice.
The standard policy is to address two issues:
1-the ethics, issues of duty.
2-the axiological, which studies the problems of value
The applied moral philosophy includes the following aspects of study:
business policy, legal policy, ethics doctor, biotic, environmental policy.
At the same time for us to be connected to the Philosophy of Right, Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of economics.
In a second table presents the Compendium of the following classifications on the policies theories:
C-No – cognitivism
Relativism appears in this picture without any specification.
Noncognitivism involves two divisions: prescriptivism Hare and our emotions, and Stevenson Yesterday
The most extensive branching corresponds to absolutism, which begins by classifying three “branches” fundamental
2-theories of virtue
Deontolgicas prospects include:
a) prospects divine commands
b) Rationalism: Kant and the contract (Plato, Rawls)
c) intuitionism: From Principles (Price, Cudworth) and the particular facts
Teleolgicas prospects include:
b) theories of justice
a)-Consequentialism implies: the selfishness, universalism and altruism.
Universalism is put in connection with utilitarianism, which can be classified as:
1-positive utilitarianism: the act (ideal, Moore)
(Hedonistic, Sidgwick) rule (ideal), (hedonistic).
2-negative utilitarianism: the act (ideal), (hedonistic) rule (ideal), (hedonistic)
3-utilitarianism of preference: the act, rule
b)-The theories of justice, which bear some relationship to consequentialism, involve two issues: distributive justice and corrective justice.
Distributive justice involves the following three issues:
1-the distribution of satisfaction, 2-the distribution of goods; 3-the distribution of opportunities
There follows we will present another way of understanding the matter of the policy and morality, we find in the dictionary Filosfico the young Spanish philosopher Garcia Pelayo , which shows how understand and raise this themed by the philosopher Gustavo Bueno, a representative of the moral philosophy of the current American world.
Gustavo Bueno argues that it is necessary to establish certain differences of departure, namely between
1-knowledge “worldly” morality.
2 – knowledge of the moral scientist.
3-filosfico knowledge of morality.
The topics about scientist knowledge of morality is that there are two basic types of questions, namely:
A) Issues relating to the order of operations on the realities of moral, ethical or jurdicas (ordo essendi) and B) issues relating to operations is the order of knowledge of those realities (moral, policies or jurdicas) (ordo cognoscendi).
As for the order essendi is important to distinguish between operations with the determination of the existence of morality and questions about the operations that determine the essential structure of morality
The questions of existence referirn the origin of moral norms in certain societies.
But those questions about the origin can only be adequately studied travs of hypotheses to explain the structural issues. Example of this last will be topics about the following questions:
There are universal moral abstract or timeless, as are universal linguistics, which irn determining the course of
There is a universal code or at least, universal components, although abstract, common to all codes?
As for the order cognoscendi the fundamental distinction is established between the level or descriptive fenomenolgico teortico or ontolgico level.
A central thesis of the moral philosopher Gustavo Bueno revolves around the topics about: “Knowledge fenomenolgico the morality of a society or an individual can be conducted from an emic perspective or from a perspective etic. ” The distinction between the emic and etic, which has taken Well – modificndola in part – of linguists and American anthropologist Kenneth Pike is crucial in this approach as it provides an epistemological differentiation of great importance in the study of morality.It seeks to establish the distinction between the subject’s perspective that belongs to a community and is directly affected by their moral standards, their customs, and the subject – in this case, the moral philosopher – which seeks to establish some objectivity about the moral conduct of the study object, in this case provided by science, anthropology, sociology, psychology, ethnologist, &.
On knowledge ontolgico, according to the moral theory of Good, will arise, for example, when it comes to determining the causes of moral standards. In the case of psychoanalysis, when looking for the causality of the norm in the so-called superego. The case of the sociologist who claims that the origin of moral norms is a matter of social functionalism.
Well proposes a classification of questions of moral philosophy into four types:
1 – fenomenolgico-hermenuticas issues of morality: “it is moral to consider the same phenomena described by the moral sciences (ethnological-Linguistics) interpreting the phenomena described in the light of moral ideas can be assumed to act implied, even in the same
Proposed as examples Espinosa Ethics and Philosophy of Spirit
2 – fundamentacin issues of morality: they correspond to causal analysis (sociolgicos, functional) of the moral sciences, or etiolgica moral ideology of the mundane (eg, “the moral laws binding because they are commandments revealed by God to Moses.”)Social or historical sciences are not intended to judge morally justify or condemn, to assess or estimate, but only to explain. “But the fundamentacin filosfica will have to judge from the transcendental foundations of morality (involving moral philosopher himself) and not merely from foundations or psicolgicos sociolgicos, will have to establish whether these foundations can take sides, which involve a historical treatment of morality. Example:
Criticism of the practices of Kant Reason. ”
3 – fenomenolgico-criticisms issues of morality: present a comparative analysis of various codes, and most especially, the moral casustica because they take their content analysis of worldly standards , collected by scientists or taken directly from
social reality and politics. “Each case of moral duty to be inserted in a precise scenario fenomenolgico “. The example of the dialogues of Plato’s moral content.
4 – axiomatic moral issues: “Are relative to moral code, the analysis of the principles implied, the systematics of the moral virtues, in coordination with other legislation, to order any of the various rules, &.Example: Ethics Nicmaco
of Aristteles. ”