some problems concerning Bioethics in present times

Third Part

I) COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM AS VITAL BIOTICA

INTRODUCTION:

I

At the time (half a century) since Norbert Wiener showed his concern about the social impact of what he meant by Ciberntica [68] , and another time from the celebrated Article Alan Turing on the question concerning the possibility of thinking machines have been a series, an ongoing, of rapid changes. These changes show that, perhaps, the Age of Electronics and Mc Luhan est in our daily lives, so that it will be said that we live in a kind of dream (perhaps nightmare) in which fusemos all science fiction characters, the style of this almost mythical world happy Huxley, but also in the clebre Orwellian world of work (and also fifty year) 1984, in which the technology of communication was responsible, through the control of thought and everyday use of Newspeak, and Skinnerian behavior engineers at the power of Big Brother, that monster which Leviatn ciberntico, in the purest style Kafkaesque destroys citizens whose only goal appears to be the mere survival and individual hedonism, in memory of qu MINIMUM does the word solidarity.

In this brief paper aims, ms to provide solutions or ways of salvation “, invite a reflection back on more urgent aspects of what is known as Biotica, a nascent discipline, immersed fully in what we define as was Ciberntica, which, from the field of Philosophy of Science, we have challenges gnoseolgico character (on criteria of truth theories ) and Costa Rican character, politics, etctera, which urges us at least start with clarity of thought and precision of argument.

2

WHAT WE UNDERSTAND WHEN YOU SPEAK OF BIOTICA?

The terms are used to define activities that are intended to doctor the solution of diseases and pathologies, through the utilization of techniques that include what can be defined as gene engineering policy, the use of computers or even robots by MDIC international society, the utilization of products pharmacists “high technology”, whose high costs of production involving large companies, Some universities and even governments (who provide public for research funds, which are in turn exploited by transnational These companies, etc.).

It can also be related to the biotic consider the field of genetics engineering applied to human MAIN SUPPLY, its relationship to health, regardless of ecological considerations (environmental)

involved.

To speak of Biotica, must start from the fact that we live in what some call a global village, or a few “global”, which means that all the countries intimately related aspects estn pol ticos, economical, cultural and even educational, and all within a model which will include the fact that the fee to apply, in the ground state politicians and must be adapted to the rules of the game what we call neoliberalism .

Biotics, then, in a complex scenario, which assumes that there is still obviously rich countries and poor, and within these concepts of rich / poor, variations that involve varying degrees or levels of poverty / wealth , has to be studied taking into account these structural differences. This means that Biotica should not speak of widespread, as if this discipline could be a pasu idntica another, as this will contribute, we believe, to conceal and misrepresent the facts, as often happens, from speeches politicians, from the information of the media, etc.

In the United States, for example, provides for Biotica from a different perspective that might arise in the European Union which is presented in the context of a country like Mexico, unlike the that may arise in Guatemala, El Salvador and Argentina.

3

THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

A) Socio politicians:

In April 1997 appeared in the Asturian town of Oviedo (Northern Spain) Asturias called Biotica Convention, which seek to establish guidelines that set the tone for the establishment of laws and activities PROTECTION aimed at the Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biomedicine Biologay

It intends to develop Policies and legislation on the following topics:

1) primaca human being, equitable access to health benefits, professional obligations and standards of conduct

2) free and informed consent of those affected by interventions medical, and refuge with these aspects of mental disorders and lastly, the issues of previous expressed by people doctor for the assistance

3) respect for private life and controlling information becomes available

4) sharee’ah human genome: predictive tests, interventions on the human genome. In this regard, we propose a choice not to sex, except in cases where this is necessary to avoid conditions that might be related to sex.

5) on the research scientist: the use of people to experience, which includes the use of embryos in vitro. On this issue of the embryos, the prohibition is explicit (Art.18.2) to form – (make)-human embryos for experriimentacin, but allows the possibility of experimenting on embryos in vitro, which seems somewhat paradoxical, certainly, or at least worthy of further debate and discussion.

6) extraction of organs and tissue for transplants from living donors.

7prohibicin profit and utilization of human body parts extrados

One of the proposals of the Convention of Asturias that seems important and should be taken up by the First Forum on Science, technology Society, is stressing the urgency and need to open a debate audience in society participation to travs educational mechanisms, the media, jurdicas institutions, politics, problems that include aspects sealed from ticos, physicians, even economically, the Bio policy, sta considered within the complexity that develops international.

B) Issues ticos:

In Italy there was a polmica during the summer of 1996, the signatories of the Manifesto of the Biotica Lay, appeared in the newspaper of the Italian economy Il Sole 24 Ore and leading scholars Bio policy located in what we call the Biotica of the Catholic Church.

The core of the controversial issues revolved around: 1-secularism, 2-the conception of science, the fecundacin artificial 3-and 4-ontolgico status of human embryo.

For two months (June and July 1996), the debate was increasing vehemence, and representatives of Catholic positions Pedano to “lay” to tolerate authority, ie, that suggested his opponents that the Church is the maximum authority in these matters, which was one of the things that did not accept the signatories of the manifesto layman.

The appearance of a document on Biotica made audience for the National Committee Biotica presented in Rome on July 12, 1996 (this document vein being developed since 1995 by a group of experts Bio policy) came to increase the tension lay / Catholics to introduce the topic of “Identity and status of human embryo.”

What we have then is a debate between those who advocate the need for the Biotica have religious content and those who say you can do Biotica secular. The article by the president of the association for the research lay in Biotica, Carlo Alberto Defanti is instructive, his title was “reasons beyond the hypotheses of God.”

Another issue raised in newspaper publications which published the Manifesto, was addressing the issue of the research scientist and moral legitimacy.Participated in the English l Roise Steven and Hillary Rose, director for the Brits Society for Social Responsibility in Science. Articles were published in which was claimed democrtico need for control over science in line with the proposals of Feyerabend. Lopert Wolpert, chairman of the Committee for comprensinpblica of science), University College London, argued that it is not science, but the use of results which requires moral reflection.

The debate bean out of the press and came to the university. In the Faculty of political science in Milan, where he discussed the contents of the Manifesto.Given the position taken by the National Committee Biotica (pro Christian) about what Evandro Agazzi bean defined as the “statute ontolgico the human embryo, the criticisms were not wait.

The National Committee considers Biotica, responding to the question is the human embryo a person?, Which for all intents and purposes, the embryo can be considered a person. This affirmation answers Armando Massarenti in Il Sole 24 Ore on 12 July that “it is not possible based on available biological knowledge, saying that the human embryo is a human individual or person.”The president of the Italian Society of philosophy analta defends secular policy advocated by the signatories of the Manifesto against the religious tenets that holds the National Committee Biotica.

To end the debate, the newspaper for publishing two articles written economy on both sides of the debate, the day July 21, 1996.What is seen as the end of “bitter” debate, is that both articles agree on the main points.

It is interesting lights to indicate that the debate resurfaced in 1998 with another topic biotic: the artificial fecundacin

* The content of Lay Biotica Manifesto:

This Manifesto proposes the following basic principles:

1-the progress of knowledge is understood as love of truth. They do not accept it, the laity, interference from outside science about what may or may not investigate sta.

2-man is not opposed to nature, as he himself is part of it.

3-the progress of science is humanity’s progress, helping to reduce human suffering.

From these three principles are established tenets practices consisting of:

1-Principle of Moral Autonomy, “all men are equally worthy and no authority over l can decide on their life and health. This implies the right to information.

2-you must ensure respect for religious beliefs of individuals. We accept this religious influence in the sense that it helps to develop a “fuzzy policy” for individuals, but it is unacceptable from the religious faith solve the fundamental problems posed by the biotic.

3-To ensure the “quality of life.”Individuals are entitled to live and die with the MINIMUM possible suffering.

4-to ensure to all individuals access to medicine with the highest possible level in relationship ms society in which they live.

* Criticisms that can be made to some of the above proposals:

If policy is to provide a truly secular, it must be also based on a secular policy, regardless of whether they accept or tolerate other religious cuo proposals.

The postulate that biotic intends to apply different criteria concerning the economic situation, or in terms of the Manifesto “in society relationship in which we live” is very questionable, at least not neoliberal positions , which are claimed concepts as social solidarity and political, or concepts like freedom, within the meaning of the philosopher Spinoza, who understood in relationship to the generosity and firmness. [69]

The position of the Church can synthesize travs of the following words of Pope John Paul II, “the biotic has the task of indicating to the world of medicine, politics, the economy aya society as a whole, the moral orientation to be printed in human activity and the project’s future. ” In addition, the Pope said that “emerges with a strong emphasis guides the existence of secure and trusted teachers. It seems therefore urgent to reflect on the biotic ontolgicas and anthropological roots of the rules that should guide decisions of such importance. The biotic is fertile ground for deep and sincere dialogue between the Church and science. It is in truth the man and his dignity ontolgica (…) where you can find appropriate answers to policy demands emerging from the genetics of the processes of procreation. “The position of the Pope, then, is intended to criticize moral relativism and utilitarianism that is in the Manifesto.

What is criticized in the Manifesto is precisely this intention on the Biotica theologizing that emerges from the Catholic proposals, in addition to rejecting the interventionism of the Church in these matters based on religious dogmas inconsistent with the policy scientist, one that already in the sixties and defenday proposes the celebrated Nobel Prize for Medicine polmico Jacques Monod in his book Chance and Necessity.Contrary to what he called “The Kingdom of Darkness” (the policy is referaa the kingdom of God, that is, the Church and religions in general) one had to develop a policy that takes into account results and theories of science, especially biology itself. While today may be unsustainable his thesis about what Monod called teleonomic, because you can not reduce biotic theorists reductionist approaches such as that considered living beings as mechanisms designed to function Teleon mica (although it is clear that each body part must perform properly the function for which it was developed, if you want to balance the system, ie the organism’s life)

About ontolgico topics about the status of the embryo, the Church, travs of one of its representatives, Monseor Sgreccia, defending a position which, incidentally, was held in the period Golden Escolstica Medieval (XIII century) by the philosopher Christian theologians and San Alberto Magno. According to San Alberto “the process of maturation of the human embryo is progressive, hence the origin of such development est and the whole being, even the same intelligence.”

Of course there is an important nuance in the current position of the Church, which proposes that “the thesis of the progressive humanizacin, according to which, the embryo will, s a human being from conception, but not llegaraa be a person to a later stage, it is not sustainable filosfica anthropologist. ”

There are two issues that limit this regard: first, that if we consider the positions defended by St. Albert the Great on the subject of Monseor embriny of Sgreccia, we think that the Church of our times is m s “closed”, more intolerant, more fundamentalist than the medieval. Indeed, it is noteworthy in this context that the position be maintained in the Middle Ages the celebrated Doctor Anglico (St. Thomas Aquinas) is incredibly similar to many bio ticos unbelievers in our times, namely: “the human embryo only becomes an individual of the human species through successive generations and corruptions, After several substantial changes, the ms INFUSIONS important consisting of the spiritual soul within a few weeks AFTER THE fecundacin. (This is called the “doctrine of delayed INFUSIONS soul).L aposicin current Church is much more radical than that advocated by two of its most respected medieval theorists, and currently holding that since the time when there is an egg is fertilized, and there is a being fully human person as an individual and respected …Can we ask, perhaps as a person in power?

On the other hand, we must, secondly, points out that the concept of person not only requires a “reconstruction criticism” from the philosophy, which naturally leads the Church or carry After all, as part of a dogmtica conception of the concept. Moreover, there will be criticized, from within the philosophy, the notion of “anthropologist filosfica” managed by Monseor Sgreccia, it is very likely that this concept from the coordinates of the Catholic Church coincides with its conception more anthropological than an actual teolgica filosfica anthropology. It is even necessary to subject the concept of anthropology filosfica to revision criticism, it is not easily determinable the Idea of Man, that s it approaches problemtica from gnoseolgicos. [70]

4

THE matter of THE PRINCIPLES AND RULES BIOTICA

The philosopher Gustavo Bueno proposed from the coordinates theorists call Scientific Theory of Categorial Closing, each s basic guidelines for the current discussion on theorists, practical problems facing the Biotica. [ 71]

In the Article entitled “Principles and general rules of a materialistic Biotica” (Well, “The Basilisk” 1999), warns that “the constitution Biotica drag from the confusion with the biomoral, and therefore the biopoltica. ”

As we know, says the Spanish philosopher, the practical problems have emerged in the four Biotica s basic factors:

1-of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology: transplantation of organs, clonacin, genetics engineering manipulation, etc.

2-their own social structure transformations in our era:

* Demogrfico increase, just development-induced industrial scientist.

* The situation of “neutralization of the social and policy of the ticos codes, moral or religious characteristic of different religious or political party, in function of the call mundializacin “Some prefer the terms globalizacin-international relations and expansion of companies associated with the economy democrticas market consumers.”

3-Well proposes a thesis that is the following approach:

the unit itself provides the Biotica problemtica not for a doctrinal unity. This unit derived from the common problemtica rene clinics problems, problems experimental scientist, politicians and the Moral aspects of the activity in this field scientist technician, but given that the expression “biotic doctrine” (which consist in the elaboration of decisions and agreed rules) is not far unvoco concept with a common meaning and all components which are the Biotica, because there are different versions of the Biotica, according to the principles adopted Biotica come from the Christian, Muslim, socialist, liberal or utilitarian.

* Criticism BIOTICA ARISING FROM THE BELMONT REPORT:

In the context of the proposed Well, the need to criticize from the philosophy, approaches emerged in the so-called Belmont Report, proposed by the Commission of the United States Congress who worked from 1974 to 1978 in elaboration.

The relevance of this criticism stems, in addition to its great interest for filosfica criticism of it, the influence of the approaches have in the development of Biotica.

The discussion topics about lies in the distinction between what we may call principles, which are of a general nature, and rules pertaining to the scope of the concrete, the application of rules or general principles individual cases, say.

The Belmont Report established as fundamental principles the principle of autonomy, that of charity, justice and the absence of malice.

In this case the distinction principles / rules filosficas lie the key issues presented by Biotica.

This issue is covered by the tradition Aristotle, explains Gustavo Bueno, since it is present the distinction between 1) the principles of prudent practices and 2) the practices of early “sindresis” [72] .

The important thing is for topics about Biotica lies in the fact that although there may be important biotic agreements on general principles, it is possible to disagree about the conclusions.

In this respect Well proposes a thesis, namely, the principles have no exceptions, and s rules have exceptions.

The fact that the early lack of exceptions due to its abstract character. However, the rules have exceptions “because the alternatives on which they-decide-the rules are not usually trade-offs, neither clear nor distinct, and fit joints limits”

The principles proposed in the Belmont Report are nothing but modern equivalents of the general principles sindresis “is to do good and avoid evil” that we can to equate with the principles of beneficence and calls Report of nonmaleficence. The same is true autonomay principles of justice, may be presented as equivalent to the standard categrico Kantian imperative, as is the autonomy of the will.

Well the confusion that complaint in the Belmont Report is given from the lack of definition of the parameters within which must be exercised, say, prudence.

The relevance of the principles for Biotica lies in the fact that “all who seek biotic forming his (…) must qualify extrnsecos criteria, moral politicians, Prudential is say, the principles.

The principles and rules of Biotica have to follow a thread should be in this proposal Well presented as a first “draft”, ie a first aproximacin the problem that must be reworked from discussions m s extensive and open discussions between the various investigations made or in progress. These principles and rules, along the lines of the Theory of the Closing Categorial are articulated in terms relationship with relations and operations of the “axis sintctico.”

We now focus on the principles and rules of the terms, and we refer you to read the article by Well, given the limited space and time disposicin we have in this work, and the relevance of other issues that we consider essential to expose your consideracin.

The essential terms are “corpreos human subjects.” Laws or rules are given to the individual will by the group, by social norms “says Bueno. The autodeterminacin, understood as a process in which the subject makes plans and programs from which their actions are executed, but is free autodeterminacin occurs in a context in which the subject has to adapt its behavior heternomas rules in force in the group that owns, besides COOPERATION itself with the social group.

The view of most interest to understand the proposal biotic Well, transcribe this text:

“(…) The field of biotic is primarily a field of individuals abstrada his personality, rather than a field of people (the field of law and even the policy).Because biotic primarily concerned orgnic components that are not people or canonical (but embryos, fetuses, monsters bispites or alleles), or have ceased to be (individuals in an irreversible coma, sick terminals, etc.).

We will outline some aspects of Biotica from a “global”, but which has important implications for Latin America, as we will check for below.

5

Traffic ORGANS OF CHILDREN AND IN A GLOBAL WORLD:

Case in point, as we know, included as one of the key points of techniques using pharmacists doctor to transplant organs and tissues, in addition to discussions of character and tico jurdico involving decisions of great importance for the community physician, involves the analysis of issues that are not nothing nice, but consider urgent and indispensable to the consideracin of all persons interested in a serious study of the most delicate aspects, from the point of view and human tico, of which I venture to highlight the use of organs and regulacino not in the world market for organs.

There is a certain silence in the media and little bibliographical information about it. However, we have major reports and several books and essays on what appears to be even a “booming business” in which collusion choke all kinds of people in the most low-class morality, d rom corrupt politicians , to doctor and even some of the most large companies in manufacturing of frmacos.

The most important base for my exhibition is provided by the researcher and philosopher Stephen A. POLITICAL Hasam in the year 1996 essay submitted to the XX Congress of the Latin American Sociology Association. His essay “traffic of infants and new insertion of Latin America in the world market” is in fact scary, but this does not mean that, when we know the reality of Latin America a little background, and reflects on Hasam the data provided on the issue of children and persons subject to the laws of the sacrosanct market, at least there are doubts about democrticos models, in terms of character and moral tico, when we find their way to address a very serious problem as we expose for below, as there is a strong reaction from world governments involved to solve the problem.

The UN asked the Human Rights Commission of research work of “contemporneas forms of slavery.”The research produced what we call the Eide report. The charge of the investigation, the lord Asbjorn Eide reported in a press conference on 1 August 1989 in the city of Geneva on that about a million of children around the world live in conditions slavery involving several ways: sale of infants for ADOPTION; prostitucin of children (eg is the so-called sex tourism), child pornography, child labor exploited without constraints of any kind, authentic or you slaves, whose work is benefiting bars of “famous” world, Debt securities by adults, children who act like criminals in the service of all kinds of mafias, and the utilization of minor for organ transplantation.

In fact there is a market for illegal ADOPTION children, as revealed on several occasions, and some of them politicians themselves leaders of countries of Latin America have testified to the existence of this macabre market, which will have nothing to envy the celebrated children’s genocidal Herod.

Some figures show this macabre aspect in which the Biotica est involved, markets, medicine, the very society they are trying to hide the phenomenon (the case being to defend the corrupt esc Scandal and the law?)-although it seems that in Europe and the United States and other countries as consumers of organs, the theme is almost complete tab. About 20 000 infants per year disappear in the US-Mexico border, about 3 thousand foot Brazilians are illegally sold abroad, there are about 20 thousand boys and girls prostitutes in the Philippines, India 400 thousand are subject to sex trade. The numbers are all over the Southeast called Asites: Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Korea. Now incorporated into this “market” that was Eastern Europe. Sex tourism is importantsima source of foreign exchange for the passes and enrichment for their corrupt leaders and mafia members.

The appearance of AIDS and improving techniques for transplantation have contribudo, apparently to increase the demand for organs for transplantation among the wealthy people of rich countries, especially the U.S., Europe Israel and surely among the upper classes of the poor countries.

The expert from the World Health organization (WHO), Dr. Jerzy Szszerban commented in the report to the journalist Anne Marie Mergia research that “the supply of organs can not meet demand and this shortage, more more importantly, causes an increase in commercial traffic in organs. ”

The WHO doctor said that there is a black market for organs.Prices for transplants in the United States were around 140 thousand dollars for the heart, 235 thousand for the pancreas, lungs and 70 000 to 51 000 dollars a wheel.

The secretary general of the International Association of Judges for Democracy (IADL), Rene Bridel Seal the danger of this illegal traffic of organs, and reason of a request from the WHO, the IADL elaborate principles to regulate the transplantation of organs, which was presented at the 44th World Health Assembly on May 13, 1991, containing nine points, which now highlight the fourth point: “No organ can be removed from a child for transplantation. The national sharee’ah can be exempted only if it is regenerated tissues. ”

Meanwhile, the number of applicants to receive an organ increases in Germany, the United States in all rich countries.

In this it is interesting reading the article by Ivan Illich in Le Monde Diplomatique, which is invited to reflect on the doctor practices model that is implemented in the rich countries, where the is total and absolute health, as suggested by Stephen Hasam, in line with articles of Le Monde Diplomatique, “a vision from a vein of life and death filosficas and cultural implications.”

It is a fact that in countries such as Egypt, Brazil, India Turquay the poor are offering their kidneys, blood and why not, an eye, or a horny, out of misery keeps the brink of death. I remember that recently, in Spain today, now EU member, an unemployed worker, in his despair, offers one of their kidneys in exchange for a permanent job, salary minimum.

The traffic of blood is well known, although the organs seems to be always hidden behind a gray veil of death. Indeed, it is interesting to note that the main consumer of human blood and plasma in the world has been the multinational pharmaceutical industry Germanic.

A great scandal occurred in Brazil reason trade of human blood, where they were involved, besides the poor marginalized people of the city of Perspolis, Hoechst’s laboratory in the city, in addition s staff of the faculty of medicine, including murder, “as if it were Chicago,” said Hasam.

Swedish Radio Riksradio-Network, denounced the January 7, 1979, and in turn denounced the journalist Aleman Siegrfried Pater, “In Haiti and in several locations in Brazil has found a method for the extraction and obtainment of blood price for export. Orphans and Small infants from large families living in economically distress are admitted to the calls as charitable institutions that function as though blood farms. ”

As we can see, the data that gives us Hasam work and others that he has handled in his essay, than any fiction, and Huxley’s Brave New World novel is a fairy tale to the side of reality the “Global Village.”

Hopefully, these allegations served, at least, to reflect and act accordingly, putting each one of us that is in their power to prevent this model of society tirnicas subject to the laws of the market, be challenged and new proposal social medicine and the health of our children and emerging companies, as the urgency of the situation is becoming evident dams.

We finished our intervention hacindonos echo the findings of Hasam, resuming his words:

“They spend the years and it is clear that the reluctance of the opininpblica-or who run it, that is, the media and their allied politicians and financial partners, and the states to recognize the incredible amount of traffic of infants and their multiple uses and purposes has been very tenacious. No wonder, since the acceptance of this implied the existence of crmenes against humanity perpetrated in bulk every year tens of thousands of infants in Latin America and the rich countries and “civilized” that import whole or in parts, living or dead. Also involve discovering openly and prosecute those consumers, are hese people, institutions, or chemistry multinational pharmaceutical industry, and the network of suppliers. Finally, we also accept that involve crimes against humanity crmenes wholesale and retail occur in peacetime

; They have nothing to do with states of war or any dictatorship that is not the dictatorship of the “market” in the civil passes, “democrticos” and “civilized” North and South. “War is Peace “George Orwell prophesied in 1984.”Also refused, quite rightly reminds us Hasam, the existence of Nazi death camps, despite complaints, and governments, enemies of the Third Empire Aleman (Hitler’s Third Reich) of the United States and England, denied and even hid these complaints and, as happens today, refuses to “incredible”, says that does not exist, this macabre traffic of organs for children and adults in this “glorious” century ends.What wonders we provide Western technoscience for the new millennium?.And shows us, the proud, the global diffusion TIME magazine, in particular its last number. It seems that almost demigods will be authentic in the XXI century (or sernms, let us be accurate and rigorous) the “haves” of the world happy), but some demigods necesitarn rituals of human sacrifices to live as such quasi-immortal, YMS all the pain and evil.

Biotica REFERENCES

Margarita Boladeras; Biotica, Madrid; Ed.Sntesis, 1998

Gustavo Bueno; The meaning of life, Oviedo (Spain); Ed.Pentalfa, 1996

– – – – – & – – – -, “Principles and rules of a materialistic Biotica,” in Journal Basilisk; 2.poca, N25, January-March 1999 (Apdo.360-33080 Oviedo ( Spain)

Joseph Fletcher, Ethics of genetics control, Buenos Aires; Ed.Aurora, 1978

ANBAL Guzman Avalos, “The Catholic Church and assisted reproduction,” in magazine

Jurdicos Studies, New little, N3, 1996; Innstituto Jurdicas Research, University esq.7 November VeracruzanaGaleana Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico CP 91050

Stephen A. Hasam, “traffic of infants and new insertion of Latin America in the global marketplace.”In Latin America the collective book (violence and misery in the twilight of the century), Carlos Figueroa (ed.)Eds.Benemrita Autonomous University of Puebla, Institute of Social Sciences and Humanities, Latin American Sociology Association

—- —- — —-;” Sex tourism and sexual exploitation of minors “; Article copyright UNESCO.Para little Indian-magazine “Dialogue” (UNESCO) September 1999

Pablo Huerta, “The Manifesto of the Biotica secular” in the internet web magazine Biotica Cued (Argentina) located at the URL

http://www.bioetica.org

Ivan Illich, “The obsession for perfect health”, in monthly Le Monde Diplomatique, March 1999 edition espaola; on the Internet can be accessed at URL

http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr

JPPapart; Ph.Chastonay and D. Froidevaux, “biotechnological products for the rich”, in

monthly Le Monde Diplomatique, March 1999 edition espaola; on the Internet can be accessed at URL

http://www.Monde-Diplomatique.fr

VVAA, An Introduction to Biotica, Mexico, Mendez Eds.1997

DOCUMENTS AND AGREEMENTS:

“Israeli Anti-Cloning Law” is available on the web at this URL

7Ebioethic/Cloning/israel_anticlone.html http://www.med.upenn.edu/%

“HIGH COMMISSIONER OF THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS

Declaration on the utilization of Scientific and Technological Progress in the interest of peace and the benefit of mankind “(Resolution 3384 (XXX) of 10 November 1975

COUNCIL OF EUROPE Biotica Convention of Asturias (Oviedo, 4 April 1997)

Convention for the PROTECTION of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to applications Biologay Medicine. “Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine

Is available on the internet is web at this URL

http://www.filosofia.org

2) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LAW, WITH TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC

THE ETHICS AND MORALS: STICS DEONTOLOGAY PROFESSIONALS.

Once we have seen a historical overview of the policy and morality, we consider important for a course in moral philosophy, pose the kind of relationship that exists between these activities and the practice of law in a world ever more steeped in activities and practices identified by the Science and the Technique.

The policy deontolgico est every dams present in the fields academics and professionals. We think it is now when professionals from different areas of knowledge and activity estnms scientist and technicians concerned about the moral implications and practices of their various professions? There has been until recent years a moral and policy implicacin acts of physicians, or the activities of journalists or researchers in the fields of science?

The above questions have tried to answer the philosophers who work in the field of what is known as deontolgica policy.

And we have this set of social practices law because there is a relationship between these factors. What kind of relationship is established between law and morality and science and technology policy? A complex relationship for the various categories that make up these sciences and technicians. And the complexity comes from two sources: one is the very stuff of which “work” each of these sciences otcnicas. The other source being, as it were, external to their own activities involved in the relationship. It is the society that “lives” these realities arising from the practice TECHNOLOGICAL and scientists, an activity that increasingly determines degree of social relations and thus the moral attitude and policy of members of these societies.

Try to prepare a brief summary overview of the implications of this topics about wearing our analysis to the following activities: science informaciny and technicians of the communication, the genetics and engineering doctor practices.

1 – Communication specialists are trained in specialized schools for specialized teachers, and part of the communication industry.There are thousands of books, articles, debates, about the work of journalists. It has been known to all the communication media “Fourth.”

Nolle-Neumann, The Spiral of Silence [73] , refers to the work of journalists or comuniclogos as a key work of this democrticas societies, while they make up what is called the through informants, the opininpblica. We believe the best book written in Spanish on this topic is that of Professor Felicsimo Valbuena, Complutense University, entitled Teora General Information [74] . Try to expose the problem of the reasons ticos, decisions and stages of moral development of journalistic activity. The problem arises because there ticos dilemmas in decisions taken by the journalist about how to do their work, which, according to studies cited by Valbuena, different situations may be classified according cases and using the model of stages of Kohlberg’s moral development, and also drawing on the psychology of Abraham Maslow. In a first stage for us to be journalists who do not know or want to know the Ticos codes and Actan that way to avoid problems with relationship to the higher power, others decide to act by calculating the consequences for your career or professional advancement, as their moral compass be placed in care for their own interests.There are journalists who think their work has implications for people who are going, within a few consequences that have to do with the welfare and rights of the majority of people.There are some journalists who engage in universal moral principles, and feel the force of Moral and / or Religion, and are those who are in the last stage of the classification referred Valbuena.

S what we say, in the case of journalistic policy, is that their values ​​differ from each other so that we can only say that there is a lack of rules, that the policy of the responsibility here the practice is carried in most cases against the policy of the conviction. Journalists, especially in cases involving limit on the call Reason of State, is limited to maintain a policy line that will not complicate its relations with the Power political. The conviction that they must report events affecting wing society is faced with the policy of responsibility, and journalists always have this ass cules SERN the effects of the way of informing polmicos issues. Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman have been working on this problem in his book The guardians of freedom [75] Let us say qu these two critics of the journalistic profession, “the propaganda model suggests that” PURPOSE social communication media is to inculcate and defend the order of the day on Economic, Social and policies of the privileged groups that dominate the state and society in the country. PURPOSE The media play this different ways: through the selection models themes, the distribution of interests, the articulation of issues, filtering of information, the emphasis and tone, as and keeping the debate within the limits of acceptable premises ”

2 – the genetics is a field engineer ever more comprehensive activity and its social scientist are of such magnitude that the politicians have to worry about becoming more by this field that includes large multinational, multimillion dollar research at universities and above all, a policy and moral implicacin serious consequences.

Foodstuffs referred transgnicos polmica estn generating world because no one knows for sure the implications for human health and the ecosystem.The compass manufacturers of products such as corn, and soybeans transgnica, dams are increasingly concerned not give a negative image about their industrial activities, as is increasingly opininpblica m s aware of the hazards, of nutrition based on genetics products handled by these comrades.The most famous case is the American company Monsanto, which has developed a pesticide, Roundup, which is used on seeds produced by the same compaay that resist the pesticide itself, but whose effects alimentaciny on the environment are not known and no doubt your character safe.

Military in the field also find cases bleeding from the use of the technique, we can cite two cases.The use of mines in war and the use of depleted uranium in NATO bombing.

The international sharee’ah policy hardly seems in this regard. Vested interests and reasons of state clebres sadly end up being the perfect excuse to carry out all kinds of immoral actions.

3 – In the scope of the practice doctor opens a huge gap policies and moral issues that are being overwhelmed by the growing complexity of science and the MIDC technique and advances in science natural and biological. The doctor discussed at Biotica Comits hospital issues such as euthanasia, abortion, eugenics, etc.. But these debates go beyond the very practice doctor to get to the other layers of the social body.The political class discussion on these issues in the game who are in millions of dollars in research investments.The case of the human genome research is a case for being the most patent displays the contradictions we face in the coming years. On the one hand, the interests of multinationals, not always as non-interest politicians of the countries involved. On the other hand, The implication of all of society, often manipulated by the reports of the media and the rhetorical politics and even some scientists involved. Ever since Aldous Huxley described this world happy and the English philosopher Bertrand Russell in his book The perspective scientist or medical Nobel Jacques Monod in Chance and polmico need to stop seeing the problems that there will be an to face the XXI century, changes have been happening so quickly, we think that Philosophy has lost the pace of progress own scientists and technicians, and perhaps is why the m doctors, the biologists, engineers genetics, have been working in the construction of their own moral principles and ticos. The topics about is: can we build a new policy and a new morality that ignores the values ​​of our Western tradition? The answer to this fundamental topics about not find in the Anglo-Saxon philosophers, or the policy of communicative action, or the policy of the contract or neocontractualism of Rawls or Dworkin. S meeting proposed Theoretically still underdeveloped, in need of more space discusiny debate, from the cultures of the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, and certainly also from Hispanoamrica but which should be promoted in forums travs and greater dissemination by mass communication. Again I suggest reading an article by the philosopher of law and morality Garzn Ernesto Valdés, entitled “Some Considerations policies on organ transplantation” [76] .

Citing Toulmin said Garzn Valds that medicine has saved the policy, but adds the Argentine philosopher “also has made it much more difficult.”Difficult in the sense that moral questions about donors of organs, the market for organs, the extraction of organs and priorities to be a recipient of an organ, are of such magnitude. For more details please see the end of the heading “Problems of biotic life.”

Some researchers see the human clonacin a path to the production of tissues and even organs, from the manipulation of calls clulas mother, and this field of research opens new you working in the field of morality and policy, an undeveloped, once again, we see that science is ahead of morality.

We have also seen how a materialist philosopher, as is the case of Gustavo Bueno, approaches these issues, but we also consider proposals from non-materialistic philosophies such as Thomism, ie The proposal of the Catholic Church, which takes into account the practices and moral ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas. As we have already sealed, the only non-Anglo-Saxon philosophers do not accept these theories, considering them metaphysics, but it follows a rejection based on the moral issues and policy considerations arising from the existence and acceptance of a natural rights of a natural reason, and so on.

The policies deontolgicas: refer to what should or should not be done, in the practice of various professions. No concerns wings consequences, but the duties. The clashes with the policy deonotologa consequentialist. According to the deontological there are certain acts that are good or bad for s themselves. The problem for deontolgico policy is twofold, in this sense, then there is the difficulty of knowing cules acts are good and which ones are bad, on the one hand, and secondly, it is difficult to establish a clear delimitacin between act and omisin.

Nozick, for example, arises from a position deontolgica, there deontolgicamente constrained events.Distinguishes between acts with agent-neutral elements and agent-relative elements.The case of doing something to achieve as much as possible, when we kill an innocent to save many lives ..The deontological tells me I should not kill, and in this case agent-relative deontological.

What matters most to discuss whether the model of moral or utilitarian model of moral deontolgico estn right about what is good and what is right and what is wrong or bad, is contrast the different theories about the moral act, freedom and the matter of the legitimacy of moral actions, focusing not only from the religion customs, but try to achieve a moral theory to explain possible solutions to pressing problems that have been sealed in this section.

I would like to conclude by recalling an aspect not mentioned so far on morality and ethics. This is a draft submitted by the theologians Hans KHN, a global policy based on religious values. A first draft of his theory was presented in his book Design of a global policy (ed.Trotta, 2 ed. Spanish, 1991), but has been widely developed in a second book originally published in 1997 in Spanish alemny the year 2000.The book is very suggestive title of a global policy for the politics economay [77] . KHN makes a very well crafted critique of the manner in which Kissinger understands the policy, as real politik, conception in which the reason of state ms est consideracin all of any other than to maintain power. Quote KHN the admired “master” Kissinger, judo Aleman Morgenthau who emigrated to the United States on the time of the Nazi rise to power in Germany. Morgenthau was a great admirer of Nietzsche and did not hide his influence in his politics by the fact of being a European in the U.S.. But the conception of politics of power, est based on the idea of ​​Nietzschean will to power. National Security as a model of American foreign politics implemented by Kissinger when he headed the common foreign and Secretary of State during the Nixon administration, is clearly influenced by morgenthaniana. The consequences of such practices concepciny politics are, according to the criticism of KHN, because of the crisis of values ​​in all the practice ticos world of international relations. We will not expand on the problems posed KHN and their proposals, based on the religion, of course, as no less pruning in telogen. But end up discussing how difficult it is to believe that their proposals on the policy and morality in business is something more than wishful thinking on his part. The global economy, such as Today it is organized, is a model that takes into account all down any moral or Costa Rican model, except the one representing the current model’s implementacin transnational capitalism. I believe that all models to be exhibited in the faculties of economics, are mere ideological and propagandistic covers to try to present to society the way divisiny international labor organization as something intr NSEC good in the sense of Moore, or anglosajn moral utilitarianism. From here is where we must begin any attempt to critique these aspects economay deontolgico of world trade, in terms of respect or Violation of Human Rights.

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