The eighteenth century or the century Illustration and the French Revolution:
As consolidation of the modern era is considered this phase, which involves faith in the progress of the only travs help of Reason, namely, the Scientific and Technological reason that arises in this newspaper of formation of capitalism, to be attacked by Karl Marx in the nineteenth century, an attack that practically make its mark throughout the twentieth century.
This international movement spans the Enlightenment, also known as the European XVIII.
Spain contributes to the illustration works like those of Feijoo and Jovellanos, in particular, and the Enlightenment movement also takes Hispanoamrica.
Leading figures in Germany are Wolf, Lessing, Kant …In England Shaftesbury, Adam Smith .. and France, we can say that is where the greatest impact occurs sociopoltico the Enlightenment movement.
The Illustrated Man is the product of two currents filosficas: empiricism and rationalism, which require the separation between philosophy and science.
For the enlightened it is essential to desacralizacin thought. Not so much fall into atheism, that s is represented in the movement, as the case of Barn Of Holbach, the desmo defend: the teaching religious Not disclosed and taught by theologians to travs dogma. God communicates to all men, travs of the natural light of reason, the pig is true that we need to live. The position of most of the picture is therefore more anticlerical atheist.
The changes involve among others, the following:
Value change: before the illustration, were written in capital letters the names of God, Church, Bible Authority. Now, written in capital letters will be appointed: Man, Freedom, Nature, Happiness, Progress.
Fertility scientist: knowledge out of the University: lounges, cafes, schools, laboratories, where they discussed outside the traditional lecture method of universities. Wise and Watt, F., Volta, Lavoisier, Smith, Bufnoir, &. Arise in this short.
Voltaire insists on the social and popular knowledge, the philosopher wants to be made accessible to the people. Recommends that the philosopher “down to the street.”
Moralizing intention : It seeks to impose a new model of society. Is the model that seeks to impose the burguesaa the other strata. Based on the idea of jus naturalism, this new moral ending the monarchy paradoxically engendering of enlightened despotism, to be violently expelled from power in France at the end of the eighteenth century. The other moral, social morality, begins to take shape in the very heart of the contradictions of the illustration. The moral clash between liberal and socialist and anarchist morals arise in part, through the impetus of their own illustration. Marx and Hegel are contemporary, both are authors of the nineteenth. Both are “children of the illustration.”
In terms of moral philosophy and politics, it is important to Montesquieu and Rousseau, philosophers defenders of private property and the popular sovereign travs of the division of powers, as basis democracy.
In moral philosophy stresses in this PERIOD the philosopher Emmanuel Kant Aleman. On the one hand, his attack on metaphysics is radical. Moreover, his arguments about the freedom and fundamentacin, remain deployed in theologian, in this case, the Protestant theologian, in his pietistic version. That is, although the philosophy outlined in the Criticism of Pure Reason is the inability of scientists to answer (according to the criteria empiricist and Kantian idealism itself) to the question I qu do?.However, for reasons “practices” of social interest, it is necessary to postulate, although Razny Science can not explain it properly, and still maintain, therefore, laa existence of God and the immortality of the soul , in addition to the Idea of World without which human freedom will be possible.
The Kantian moral subject of strong criticisms, as we shall see in detail to study the policy of Moore, neoempirista English of the early twentieth century. The main target of the criticisms to be in the autonomy of moral reason, which imposes itself as the moral law and the formal character of Kant’s policy, which lacks specific content, and that the goodness or badness of human acts only depend on what Kant meant by pure will. For followers of Hume, and especially for Moore and the naturalistic fallacy thesis, support the moral law, as did Kant, in the sense of duty, when it has been established since the laws of logic, the delimitacin between being and should be, is simply unacceptable, in addition to false.