The periods of European history is a transition of the High Middle Ages to the Modern Age. There is a crisis of moral values and Christian theologians and this leads to the need for a new reading of the Bible. The rebel against religious authority and the rise of the scientist authority after the Copernican revolution is one of the salient features of this phase. The state is conceived under the parameters of science and secular art, which POLITICAL Augustinian model begins to crumble. The emergence of the utopian is a characteristic of this low, where the human is represented by the ideal platnico a Republic where there is perfect justice and harmony. Campanella and Sun City, Toms Moro and the utopian island of Utopay scientist Francis Bacon are evidence of a change in orientation which in addition would be enhanced by the invention of Gutenberg . With the ability to directly read the Bible, it was not necessary that clrigos interpret the sacred text. Is seeking, as is the case of Laurentius Valla, a return to the Stoics and epicreos, but confessed that happiness is not in this life.The rejection is based on fern Escolstica that, for men of the Renaissance, contributed only cows abstractions ylgicas metaphysics.
The sixteenth century clebre bring the figure of Machiavelli Nicols, born in Florence in 1469, died in 1530. Your valoracin of man is radically pessimistic. Both The Prince and the Discorsi, says that men are ungrateful, fickle, vidos estn gain. Therefore, the Prince must be able to manipulate situations using all necessary means, provided that this will help you achieve your goals. Must be proficient in the deception: it is not necessary to have virtues, it is enough seeming to, is always above the moral and therefore indifferent to morality.