The change stems from the so-called Renaissance in fifteenth century Italy, makes the moral and policy horizons will theorists practices and approaches that represent a departure from the ideas of the Age teocntricas Media. The influence of Plato, recovered by Italian scholars, is also a desire to return to the ways of life of the Greek classics.Moreover, the development of commercial and banking bourgeoisie in the era of the new discoveries of the navigators Basque, Spanish and Portuguese, produces changes in the social conception, especially fern that mainstream society society will be urban, compared the peasant. 22
The most prominent figure is in the field of moral philosophy, the figure of Machiavelli Nicols (1469-1527). Met struggles for control of Florence between King Charles VIII francs and Medicis. By knowing Csar Borgia, Machiavelli “capt then the value of politics as art, abstraction made of mere force.” Despite his ability, Machiavelli did not prevent the defeat of a Florentine army promoted by he himself, before the troops Spaniards, who manage Florence replace the rule of the Medicis the year 1512.
It is interesting to Francis Bacon’s phrase, quoted by Giner, to understand the scope of the ideas of Machiavelli: “Machiavelli much we owe to others and as he wrote about what people do and not what he must do” .
The policy of Machiavelli’s theory is important both for its pessimistic consideracin human “nature”, but it lies more in its conception of politics as “reason of State “.
Let’s see how this is exposed in the essay on topics about the categories of science policies of G. Good:
“The conception of politics associated with the new idea of” reason of State “(Giovanni Botero, Machiavelli) restores to some extent the idea Aristotle, only that the potential decoupling of prudence politicians or the art of moral laws. Machiavelli returns to the conception as practices, technique, that of politics is the Prince and aimed at getting the rge can give every day “a step further in time. ”
The criticism that can make this conception maquiavlica, may be the one comes from Marxism, as it is seen that all the techniques of preserving his conquest, and to “turn on the vac or do not respond to the reality of social forces and financially. The policy is not a closed system of operations; presupposes a social matter. ” 23
The so-called European Renaissance humanists devoted their efforts to invent the so-called utopian city models where men may live in peace, a life epicrea, although all recognize the character of “dream” impossible utopian ideas. Toms Campanella, an Italian Dominican monk, who was persecuted for seventeen years by the Inquisition, which reads prisin stay in his famous work The City of the Sun an island in Ceiln where chief ruled the greater, the metaphysics Hoh and his ministers Pon, Sin and Mor (power, wisdom and love.)Citizens practiced total communism.
The utopia of Toms Moro was a republic where there is the
welfare and justice. Francis Bacon also try, following the model of platnico ideal state, a social utopia and politics, but more well-grounded in the government of philosopher king. The New Atlntida is a society that is based on scientific knowledge. Ms to seek social justice seeks a society governed by texts jurdicos, precise and cold days. The utopian island being ruled by a king and his mandarins, a powerful class of intellectuals who rule without the
Luis Vives, a follower of Lorenzo Valla (1405-1457), denies the value of the methods Aristotle. Prefer a return to the Stoics and epicreos, but admit that happiness is not in this life.