a critical approach to Greek Morality and Ethical values

Faced with the policy of Socrates, who sought to base the moral values ​​the reason, we develop the policy of the resignacin to Stoic natural law. Stoic aspirations are unattainable to see that the universe means thinking about the shipment in the stillness that is the go with events in the world and sink into the waves without a single murmur of complaint. The philosophy of nature leads the Stoics to resignacin policy.

Plato is the first philosopher who feels that the presence in man of the policy idea is a mystery. Not satisfied with the attempt to express the historical Socrates as something rational pleasure provider. That is why Plato is clear that the principle tico should be an absolute principle.

The problem being that this principle of a Costa Rican platnico be empty of content, purely formal. In this formalism arises platnico problemtica about the possibility of developing from l rules for moral conduct concrete. Thus, when Plato states deal with issues of order practices, is forced to resort to the popular conception of the chief virtues. In The Republic appoint four of them: wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. These are based on psychological, but not in a general conception of the good.

The real policy is in Plato, a negation of the world because their world of pure being led him to it. In Plato we find the time asctica ELDEL of inactivity: see the world of ideas, and a time the Greek desire to stick to reality. What causes confusion is the fact that Plato does not recognize the conflict between the two worlds. His policy, as Schweitzer explains, is a mess. [13]

The aportacin schweitzeriana to the construction of a filosfica criticism of the policy is of great interest to read this text:

“The platnica policy of negation of the world is not an original creation, Plato is aduea it in the Indian environment in which it is offered by Orphism and Pythagoreanism. Why road map made its way to Greek thought this pessimism that Bean was rushed in thinking to the point of becoming a system, and was armed with the doctrine of reincarnation, do not know, and probably nonos may learn ever. The fact that in Greek thought are presented side by side without malice optimism and pessimism mature always be to us the mystery of Greek culture. ” 14

According to Schweitzer puts it, is alarm at the sight Aristteles how his teacher Plato “was lost to soar to the heights.” To avoid falling into the same mistake is dedicated to establishing a useful policy and practice that harmonize with reality.

Accepts socrtica policy in the sense that they should pursue happiness.

The activity is the key to your company policy. Happiness is to be defined as activity in accordance with the law of excellence. But Aristteles policy will raise a say, “pragmtica” and recognize that there is no rational content to the motivation to act, because that content is already given will, therefore, ning No rational knowledge can put anything new or alter the will. The policy, in particular the policy set out in the Nicomachean is no guide to the will of the goals and objects put that knowledge forward, but that will regulate itself. What you should do is set the right balance between the different elements of the given content of the will. As it fought, will be released to extremes. The rational reflection remains in the path of the medium, it should be. In that state of harmony is how it should conceive human activity cally motivated. Virtue, therefore, is predisposition to observe the golden mean to be acquired by the practice. 15

On the moral model of the Stoics, we believe it useful to read this text Gonzalo Puente Ojea:

“… The difference of Stoicism on other schools is to have conceived the relationship of justice among men, as equals, as inseparable from the ideal of wisdom. Indeed, natural law that supports the ideal cosmpolis enters the notion of a universal humanity that morality and justice are inseparable, therefore, the spirit of the Stoic ideal jurdico exceeded the category “politics of slavery, because in this context the fact that theorists love (despoteia) was as bad as that of a slave (doulosyne): only the wise (Sophs) is noble and free, because only he is capable of an autonomous region action, slaves are evil and ignorant.The maximum known, which contains a previous opinion to the Stoics, according to which “no man is by nature a slave” (ek nthropos physeos oudes idols), takes with them a new Theoretically status: as only the spirit is noble and slave, jurdica specific situation in which the individual is socially minor importance. Every man must fulfill his destiny from the social position that est. The important thing is the “inner man” and the freedom of his will as “. 16

Est good for the Stoa, in what is useful. It follows, as Elorduy sealed, which “Virtue and how involved it is called good in three ways:

1) As an effect (good), which derives from the good, as is the virtuous act.

2) As good cause an effect, as the good and virtuous man.

3) Otherwise, define what good saying it is perfect according to the nature of rational beings, as good as virtue and part of it, whether the act and people. ” .17

Unlike peripatticos and Aristteles, the desirable “can be a achieved perfection and constitutive of the subject.” To Aristteles, on the contrary, it is not desirable that the subject is hunger, but he is something outside. ” Remember that we are dealing with the concept of appealing in the sense of the expression of the policy clebre Nicomachean “Good is what we all crave.”

In the case of Stoic moral, good as a cause of good, ie, the person, and they are also the virtues that make good to the person. In terms strictly filosficos Elorduy explains as follows: “Stoicism, as is known, stresses the importance dynamics of the causal agent.Aristotelianism matched to the formal cause both efficient and to the end. ” [18]

Aristteles, which is followed by Cicero in their criticisms to the Stoics, argues applied to moral naturalism, in the sense that human evolution is a kind of sum in ways that leave from the bosom of matter, or perfections which are obtained by degrees, sacndolas one by one “the universal reservoir of being.”

The Stoics, for its roots teocntrica, dynamism of the man thought very differently.

“The Stoic thought is in nature a system of objective standards imposed by the line ratio, with the name of fatum or providence, which in Christianity is called eternal law and natural law.” 19

Seneca proposes that the definition of good is consistent with this approach, as we see: “The good thing is what drives the momentum of the minimum according to their nature, and has to wish for when it begins to be palatable, which is also honest, because honesty is perfectly palatable.” 20

We want to highlight the problem of politics and social implantation of the Stoic doctrine in the Roman Empire little as some, we think with reason, consider the need to disseminate certain moral standards as an ideological necessity to contain, if possible, the increasing rebelliousness of slaves and poor both in the field and in the Roman city.

Published in: on March 20, 2011 at 4:26 pm  Comments (1)  

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One CommentLeave a comment

  1. Remarkable! Its in fact remarkable piece of writing, I have
    got much clear idea about from this article.

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